Cases reported "Vocal Cord Paralysis"

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11/22. Respiratory failure in myasthenia gravis due to vocal cord paresis.

    Paroxysmal dyspnea and stridor in a patient with myasthenia were shown to be due to weakness of vocal cord abductors that improved with anticholinesterase therapy. Despite adequate inspiratory force, breathing was severely impaired by increased inspiratory resistance. The inspiratory flow-volume loop was useful in documenting the laryngeal obstruction and monitoring the effect of therapy. Reinterpretation of previous studies suggests that upper airway obstruction may often contribute to respiratory failure in patients with myasthenia.
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keywords = breathing
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12/22. Chronic upper airway obstruction: value of the flow volume loop examination in assessment and management.

    Chronic obstructive lesions of the upper airways such as post-traumatic strictures, bilateral vocal cord paralysis and chronic inflammatory foci are uncommon. The functional assessment of the severity and character of an obstruction is important both for diagnosis and management, and may also allow evaluation of the efficacy of medical and surgical treatment. There are limitations of simple spirometric pulmonary function tests, which are evident when assessing upper airways obstruction. The flow volume loop is a graphic recording of airflow during maximal respiration and expiration at different lung volumes, and may be affected in a characteristic way by alterations in the airway resistance. Three unusual cases of chronic upper airway obstruction are presented which illustrate the value of the flow volume loop examination in their management.
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ranking = 2.3376294450378
keywords = respiration
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13/22. Multifactorial obstructive sleep apnea in a patient with Chiari malformation.

    We report a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with a unique combination of syringobulbia-myelia, Chiari malformation type I (CM), absent hypoxic ventilatory drive, vocal cord paralysis, post-menopausal status, obesity, and acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. The remote onset of OSA five years after surgery underscores the need for long-term follow-up of patients with syringobulbia-myelia and CM and the importance of addressing multiple interacting neurologic, metabolic, and mechanical predispositions to sleep-disordered breathing.
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keywords = breathing
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14/22. The flow-volume loop in bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    A 38-year-old man with posttraumatic bilateral vocal cord paralysis and a surgically repaired avulsion of the extrathoracic trachea presented with a slight increase of exertional dyspnea (grade 2). spirometry showed high normal FEV1 for FVC variables, but the F-V loop was characteristic for highly variable UAO with an increased FEV1/PEF ratio of 11 ml/L/min as well as a MEF50/MIF50 of 4.55. endoscopy during forced respiration showed near total inspiratory obstruction of the larynx due to paradoxical behavior of the vocal cords. In extrathoracic airway obstruction a FEV1/PEF ratio > 10 ml/L/min combined with a MEF50/MIF50 ratio > 4 is suggestive of variable UAO caused by bilateral vocal cord paralysis rather than by a tracheal lesion.
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ranking = 2.3376294450378
keywords = respiration
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15/22. Laryngeal electromyography findings in idiopathic congenital bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    Children with idiopathic congenital bilateral vocal cord paralysis (BVCP) were investigated by electromyography (EMG) of the posterior cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles to determine whether laryngeal EMG findings had diagnostic or prognostic significance. Four children between 3 weeks and 33 months of age were studied. Three had abductor paralysis and were tracheostomy-dependent, while the fourth had adductor paralysis requiring a feeding gastrostomy. Two of these patients also had other anomalies. Motor unit potentials showing phasic bursts with respiration were found in all four cases, while three children developed a full interference pattern on lightening of the anesthetic. Follow-up for between 37 and 52 months showed no significant clinical improvement in any of the patients. While the diagnosis of idiopathic congenital BVCP can represent a heterogeneous group of conditions, the findings suggest that normal laryngeal EMG findings may be a feature of idiopathic congenital BVCP but do not imply a favorable prognosis for early recovery. They may, however, have implications to explain the likely site of lesion in idiopathic congenital BVCP.
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ranking = 2.3376294450378
keywords = respiration
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16/22. Laryngeal schwannomas.

    As laryngeal schwannomas are a threat to breathing, they must be removed. CT and MR provide an accurate pre-operative work-up of these lesions. The clear delineation of the tumoral attachment to the larynx proved to be very useful in the difficult management of our second patient. Our two laryngeal schwannomas exhibited a similar appearance which differed from those of the few other laryngeal nerve sheath tumors reported in the literature The low attenuating outer part correlated with Antoni B areas. The denser enhancing inner part correlated with Antoni A areas containing large vessels. This unusual tumoral appearance, which has been observed in some other peripheral schwannomas, must bring this diagnostic possibility to mind. However, this clearly contrasting distribution of the two components of schwannomas is not the most commonly observed in other locations. More reports are needed to establish whether this special appearance is characteristic of laryngeal location.
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keywords = breathing
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17/22. Abductor vocal fold palsy in the shy-drager syndrome presenting with snoring and sleep apnoea.

    The case of an elderly male with shy-drager syndrome is presented. His presentation to the sleep Clinic for assessment of snoring illustrates bilateral abductor vocal fold palsy as a rare presentation of the syndrome. This case emphasizes the need for thorough investigation of all patients with sleep-related breathing disorders with video and sound recordings prior to anaesthesia and surgery.
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keywords = breathing
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18/22. Electrical pacing of the paralyzed human larynx.

    This study represents the first attempt to electrically pace the paralyzed human larynx. The goal was to determine if electrical stimulation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle could produce functional abduction of the vocal fold in pace with inspiration. An external apparatus was used to sense inspiration and reanimate the unilaterally paralyzed larynx of a thyroplasty patient. Stimuli were delivered through a needle electrode to locate and pace the abductor muscle. The magnitude of electrically induced abduction was comparable to spontaneous movement on the normal side. The abduction was appropriately timed with inspiration: this finding demonstrated that this simple pacing system could effectively modulate stimulation with patient respiration.
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ranking = 2.3376294450378
keywords = respiration
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19/22. sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with multiple system atrophy and vocal fold palsy.

    We performed sleep studies in eight patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and three patients with peripheral bilateral vocal fold palsy (PBVFP) and investigated stenosis of the upper airway tract during sleep in MSA patients with vocal fold palsy. Among the eight MSA patients in this study, five had definite glottic snoring and two others were suspected of having glottic snoring. Of the PBVFP patients, two had glottic snoring. Three of 11 patients died, and two of the three deaths occurred during sleep. Glottic snoring indicated a high degree of negative esophageal pressure. High negative esophageal pressure demonstrates severe narrowing of the upper airway tract. Therefore, glottic snoring should be considered a risk factor for sudden death in sleep. Repeated laryngoscopic examination is useful in evaluating the progressive process of vocal fold palsy while awake, but this examination performed only while awake is not enough to evaluate narrowing of the upper airway during sleep. sleep studies that include the measurement of esophageal pressure can be very useful in evaluating the severity of narrowing in the upper airway tract. It is suspected that sudden nocturnal death in MSA patients is caused not only by abnormal respiration resulting from impairment of the respiratory center, but also by glottic obstruction caused by sputum or by edema of the vocal folds. We recommend treatment of respiratory disorders when loud laryngeal snoring occurs in patients with MSA, even if they do not complain of dyspnea while awake.
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ranking = 6.3376294450378
keywords = respiration, breathing
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20/22. Laryngologic management of infants with the Chiari II syndrome.

    As a part of a prospective multi-disciplinary study, all children born with a Chiari II malformation within the Uppsala region during a 3-year period were evaluated for any difficulties in breathing or swallowing. The evaluation was repeated at regular intervals during their first 18 months. Direct laryngoscopies were performed using flexible fiberscopes. Four out of 22 children were found to have disturbed breathing. Among those, two suffered from central apnoeic spells as well as bilateral vocal fold motion impairment, one from apnoeic spells only and one from bilateral vocal fold motion impairment only. All four also had dysphagia with aspiration. Three of the children developed respiratory symptoms within the first 3 months and the symptoms of the fourth begun within the first 6 months. One infant with severe symptoms expired at the age of 3 months. The vocal fold paralysis, apnoeic spells and swallowing difficulties of another infant resolved following active neurosurgical management. The conclusion that laryngologic issues are prominent in the severe Chiari II syndrome was further supported by a review of four more cases managed in recent years. Laryngologic assessment in the neonatal period can help to raise the issue of early neurosurgical intervention as well as identify some of the infants who will need extensive habilitation. Screening of laryngeal function by means of flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy is recommended.
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ranking = 2
keywords = breathing
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