Cases reported "Vocal Cord Paralysis"

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11/392. Transient left vocal cord paralysis during laparoscopic surgery for an oesophageal hiatus hernia.

    A 45-year-old male, with symptoms of many years standing of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, was subjected, under general anaesthesia, to laparoscopic fundoplication. Tracheal intubation yielded no problems but great difficulties were encountered during tube insertion into the oesophagus. After surgery, aphonia developed. Laryngological examination demonstrated paralysis of the left vocal cord. voice strength returned to the pre-operative status after 3 months, and laryngological examination confirmed normal mobility of both cords. The possible cause of the complication was damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve which occurred during insertion of the tube into the oesophagus. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease causing 'acid laryngitis' can create conditions favouring this type of complication.
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12/392. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to cardiac countershock (cardioversion).

    Application of electrical energy to the heart is effective in treating many dysrhythmias. There are, however, also disadvantages associated with cardioversion. employment of external electrical current has been shown to induce epicardial and myocardial damage at the site of electrode application. We present the only case in the English literature of vocal fold paralysis in which the single identified associated event was cardioversion. In this case of temporary vocal fold paralysis, there was no invasive procedure to directly damage the nerve. echocardiography of the patient revealed a large left atrium, placing the recurrent laryngeal nerve in an abnormal anatomic position where it was vulnerable to the electric current.
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13/392. Benign disease of the thyroid gland and vocal fold paralysis.

    Development of vocal fold paralysis in the presence of thyroid disease is strongly indicative of thyroid cancer, and requires surgical exploration. At the same time, vocal fold paralysis does not relieve the surgeon of his obligation to identify and preserve the recurrent laryngeal nerves, since the cause of the paralysis may be a benign disease, with a fair chance of functional recovery after surgery. We hereby report a case of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a multinodular goitre.
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keywords = vocal
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14/392. cricoid cartilage necrosis after arytenoidectomy in a previously irradiated larynx.

    Several open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to provide an adequate airway for patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Transoral laser arytenoidectomy has repeatedly been reported to be a reliable and effective minimally invasive procedure for airway restoration. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of serious complications, other than poor vocal results, aspiration, and failed decannulation in individual patients, that have resulted from this intervention. We report a case in which arytenoidectomy led to severe complications and death. Prior irradiation is suspected to be a causative factor. To prevent such an outcome, we believe that operative settings should be chosen that avoid deep thermal injury of the laryngeal framework.
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keywords = vocal
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15/392. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy associated with silicosis.

    Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually results from invasion or compression of the nerve caused by diseases localized within the aortopulmonary window. This study reports the case of a 76-yr-old male with vocal cord paralysis due to lymph node involvement by silicosis. This rare entity was identified by video-mediastinoscopy, which revealed a granulomatous and fibrosed recurrent lymph node encasing the nerve. The nerve was dissected and released from scar tissues. Progressive clinical improvement was observed followed by total and durable recovery of the voice after 15 weeks follow-up.
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16/392. Low-dose vincristine-associated bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    BACKGROUND: vincristine-associated peripheral neuropathy is a well-described entity. We describe a case of vincristine-induced vocal cord paralysis, which is a rare complication of this drug. We report herein the second case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis in a patient receiving conventional doses of vincristine. OBJECTIVE: To present a case report of vincristine-associated vocal cord paralysis and to review the relevant English language literature on this subject. DESIGN: Report and review of the literature. SETTING: Outpatient community cancer center. PATIENT: A 58-year-old female with a diffuse large cell lymphoma stage IV receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. RESULTS: Bilateral vocal cord paralysis occurred in this patient receiving vincristine as part of her chemotherapy regimen. In addition to this case there have been a total of 25 prior reports, which are reviewed in the text. CONCLUSION: The incidence of bilateral vocal cord paralysis in patients receiving vincristine on the usual low-dose schedule is low. Prompt withdrawal of the offending agent results in prompt recovery without untoward long-lasting sequela.
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keywords = vocal
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17/392. Hereditary neuropathy and vocal cord paralysis in a man with childhood diphtheria.

    We present the case of a 37-year-old Afghani man with a history of childhood diphtheria, who was diagnosed with bilateral vocal cord paralysis at age 15 years. At about this time he developed progressive muscular wasting and distally predominant weakness, and subsequently developed respiratory insufficiency, necessitating nocturnal ventilatory support. His examination suggested a distal symmetric sensorimotor neuropathy, and his brother was similarly affected, although to a lesser degree. electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies revealed this process to be purely axonal. A diagnosis of possible hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type IIc, hereditary axonal polyneuropathy with vocal cord paralysis, is proposed, although the question of early diphtheritic involvement of the vocal cords and peripheral nerves is also considered.
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keywords = vocal, motor
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18/392. Bilateral abductor vocal fold paralysis due to myasthenia gravis.

    We report a case of bilateral abductor vocal fold paralysis due to myasthenia gravis in a 61-year-old man who presented with stridor requiring tracheostomy. The stridor had been preceded by several weeks' history of diplopia.
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19/392. Unilateral vocal cord paralysis following endotracheal intubation--a case report.

    A 41-year-old man of ASA physical status class I was scheduled to receive the video-assisted thoracoscopic T2 sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis palmaris. The elective surgery was performed smoothly under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. However, the patient complained of hoarseness in the postoperative period. A stroboscopic examination showed that the left vocal cord remained stationary in the paramedian position, signifying left vocal cord paralysis. In the case, we believed it was most likely that endotracheal intubation might be responsible for the unilateral vocal cord paralysis. The possible cause was that during placement or thereafter during positioning, the endotracheal tube was malposed or slipped upward, rendering its inflated cuff to rest against the vocal cords. Another reason was that the cuff which was over inflated made the vocal cords under constant pressure. Both conditions may cause damage to the anterior branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We also discussed the general management and prophylaxis for the unilateral vocal cord paralysis.
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keywords = vocal
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20/392. Pediatric vocal fold medialization with silastic implant: intraoperative airway management.

    Vocal fold immobility accounts for 10% of all congenital laryngeal abnormalities, second only to laryngomalacia. Acquired unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) is generally due to surgical trauma. The problems associated with this condition include a breathy dysphonia, weak cough, and aspiration. Treatment involves observation, voice and swallowing therapy, and various surgical options. Medialization laryngoplasty with silastic implant (ML-s) is a very successful procedure with consistent results in the adult population. It is usually done under local anesthesia with sedation to allow the voice to be monitored during the procedure. The surgeon can then fashion a custom implant or use a specific prefabricated implant. Additionally, use of the flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope (FFNPL) allows the surgeon to see the endolarynx during the procedure, thus avoiding overmedialization and airway obstruction. Children, however, do not tolerate such invasive procedures under local anesthesia and sedation, have much smaller airways and, therefore, present several problems when addressing this problem surgically. Management of the pediatric airway during ML-s can be achieved using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the FFNPL. While this does not allow the voice to be assessed intraoperatively, appropriate medialization of the vocal fold can be judged via the FFNPL, and airway obstruction avoided. ML-s using the LMA and FFNPL was performed in two children aged 8 and 4 years old. Both had excellent voice results and no complications. The details of these cases are reported. The literature on treatment of UVFI in children is reviewed, and practical and theoretical issues discussed.
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