Cases reported "Voice Disorders"

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1/6. Ventricular dysphonia: clinical aspects and therapeutic options.

    OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Ventricular dysphonia, also known as dysphonia plica ventricularis, refers to the pathological interference of the false vocal folds during phonation. Despite its low incidence and prevalence, Vd is a well-known phenomenon in voice clinics. The present report reviews symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options regarding this voice disorder. STUDY DESIGN: literature review and case studies. methods: The literature pertaining to all clinical aspects of V(D) was reviewed to define diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision making. RESULTS: Ventricular dysphonia is characterized by a typical rough, low-pitched voice quality resulting from false vocal fold vibration. Ventricular dysphonia may be compensatory when true vocal folds are affected (resection, paralysis). Noncompensatory types may be of habitual, psychoemotional, or idiopathic origin. Because perceptual symptoms may vary considerably, diagnosis should rely on a meticulous voice assessment, including laryngeal videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic, and acoustic evaluation. Various therapeutic approaches for the noncompensatory type of ventricular dysphonia may be considered: voice therapy, psychotherapy, anesthetic or botulinum toxin injections, or surgery. CONCLUSION: The study presents the state of the art with respect to ventricular dysphonia and may be helpful in diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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2/6. Paradoxical vocal cord motion--a case report.

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) is an unusual cause of stridor, which is associated with some underlying causes, such as central nervous system lesion, gastroesophageal reflux or psychogenic problem. Once a diagnosis of PVCM is made, acute management with reassurance and sedation instead of aggressive airway intervention is required. speech therapy, psychotherapy combination with anti-reflux medication is considered to be useful in long-term management. We present a 58 year-old male patient who had suffered from several episodes of acute onset of stridor, short of breath and tachypnea since one year ago. He was initially treated as an asthmatic patient with poor response. aneurysm of ascending aorta by angiography, and mild gastroesophageal reflux with hiatal hernia by panendoscopy were noted. Then, the paradoxical vocal cord motion during inspiration phase was confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngoscope after the consultation with an otolaryngologist. The emergency of his air-hunger was relieved quickly after psychological intervention. Now, he is free of stridor attack under anti-reflux therapy and psychotherapy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = psychotherapy
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3/6. A case of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and psychogenic dysphonia.

    A psychogenic voice disorder co-occurred or evolved with the symptoms and signs of unilateral superior laryngeal nerve paresis. We speculated that the former was a manifestation of a musculoskeletal tension or conversion reaction disorder, whereas the latter was a sequela to a self-limiting inflammatory process. Voice therapy proved effective for alleviating the psychogenic dysphonia after the signs of the neuropathy had resolved, whereas psychotherapy offered strategies for stress management. A multidisciplinary approach to this patient provided for differential diagnosis and efficacious treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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4/6. Treatment of spastic dysphonia by recurrent laryngeal nerve section.

    The problem of management of patients with spastic dysphonia has been complicated by a general resistance to speech therapy, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and drug therapy. Dedo introduced the concept of recurrent laryngeal nerve section in an attempt to eliminate the hyperfunction and excessive adduction of the vocal folds. Eleven patients were treated by RLN section with satisfactory results in 8 and some improvement in the other 3. The operation was found to be generally uncomplicated and required on average 4 days of hospitalization. Dedo's theory that spastic dysphonia is caused by a neurotropic viral-induced proprioceptive nerve deficit represents a new search for organic cause. His most recent report of finding unmyelinated fibres in one-third of the resected recurrent laryngeal nerves is of questionable significance. The evidence of deep emotional conflict and/or compulsive life-style is found in the majority of the patients, but the syndrome is not typical of an hysterical or conversion neurosis. Regardless of etiologic theory, RLN section is an effective treatment in selected, long-standing, and resistant instances of spastic dysphonia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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5/6. recurrent laryngeal nerve section in the treatment of spastic dysphonia.

    Spastic dysphonia is a severe vocal disability in which the patient speaks with hyperadducted vocal folds. The resulting abnormality is characterized by excessively low pitch, vocal tremor, laryngospasms, and strain-strangle voice quality. Until recently the disorder was regarded as psychogenic and treated unsuccessfully with speech therapy and psychotherapy. New evidence supports the theory that the etiology is neurologic, requiring management designed to alter neurophysiologic function. Section of the recurrent laryngeal nerve provides immediate results and a new voice virtually free of the previous unpleasant characteristics.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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6/6. Episodic paroxysmal laryngospasm: voice and pulmonary function assessment and management.

    Episodic paroxysmal laryngospasm (EPL) is a sign of laryngeal dysfunction, often without a specific organic etiology, which can masquerade as asthma, vocal fold paralysis, or a functional voice disorder. The intermittent respiratory distress of EPL may precipitate an apparent upper airway obstructive emergency, resulting in unnecessary endotracheal intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or tracheostomy. During 27 months, seven women and three men, age 30-76 years, were assessed by a high diagnostic index of suspicion, an intensive history including psychosocial factors, physical examination of the airways, provocative asthma testing, and swallowing studies. Videolaryngoscopy, stroboscopy, and pulmonary flow-volume loop testing were definitive. The classic appearance was paradoxic inspiratory adduction of the anterior vocal folds with a posterior diamond-shaped glottic gap. During an attack of stridor or wheezing, attenuation of the inspiratory flow rate as depicted by the flow-volume loop suggested partial extrathoracic upper airway obstruction. Swallowing evaluation by videolaryngoscopy and videosophagography may uncover gastroesophageal reflux disease. Hallmarks of management include patient and family education by observation of laryngoscopic videos, a specific speech therapy program, psychotherapy, and medical treatment of associated disorders. electromyography may become a valuable future adjunct. Unlike laryngeal dystonia, patients with EPL do not benefit from botulinum toxin type A.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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