Cases reported "Voice Disorders"

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1/34. The effects of excessive vocalization on acoustic and videostroboscopic measures of vocal fold condition.

    Although dysphonia is a recognized consequence of acute vocal abuse, associated changes in vocal fold appearance and function are not well understood. To document these presumed effects of vocal abuse, audio recordings of sustained vowel production were obtained from 42 drill sergeants daily during the first 6 days of a vocally demanding training exercise. Acoustic analysis showed abnormal levels of jitter and shimmer on Day 1 in 16 of the 42 subjects. Considering only the 26 subjects who showed normal voice acoustics on Day 1, the median levels of jitter and shimmer varied little over the course of training, and significant increases in jitter and shimmer were not seen during the study period. However, the distributions for both jitter and shimmer became more positively skewed and showed a greater number of positive outliers over the course of training. This trend was attributed to 11 subjects who showed two or more instances of abnormal voice acoustics over Days 2 through 6. Laryngeal videostroboscopic recordings of sustained vowel production also were obtained prior to and following training. Perceptual ratings of these recordings by 2 observers revealed significant increases in vocal fold edema, erythema, and edge irregularity, and decreases in vocal fold mucosal wave and amplitude of excursion following the 5-day training period. In general, there was considerable intersubject variability in the extent of acoustic and videostroboscopic effects over the course of training. Of the two types of data, videostroboscopy appears to provide a more sensitive indication of the effects of excessive vocalization.
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2/34. A report on alterations to the speaking and singing voices of four women following hormonal therapy with virilizing agents.

    Four women aged between 27 and 58 years sought otolaryngological examination due to significant alterations to their voices, the primary concerns being hoarseness in vocal quality, lowering of habitual pitch, difficulty projecting their speaking voices, and loss of control over their singing voices. Otolaryngological examination with a mirror or flexible laryngoscope revealed no apparent abnormality of vocal fold structure or function, and the women were referred for speech pathology with diagnoses of functional dysphonia. Objective acoustic measures using the Kay Visipitch indicated significant lowering of the mean fundamental frequency for each woman, and perceptual analysis of the patients' voices during quiet speaking, projected voice use, and comprehensive singing activities revealed a constellation of features typically noted in the pubescent male. The original diagnoses of a functional dysphonia were queried, prompting further exploration of each woman's medical history, revealing in each case onset of vocal symptoms shortly after commencing treatment for conditions with medications containing virilizing agents (eg, Danocrine (danazol), Deca-Durabolin (nandrolene decanoate), and testosterone). Although some of the vocal symptoms decreased in severity with the influences from 6 months voice therapy and after withdrawal from the drugs, a number of symptoms remained permanent, suggesting each subject had suffered significant alterations in vocal physiology, including muscle tissue changes, muscle coordination dysfunction, and propioceptive dysfunction. This retrospective study is presented in order to illustrate that it was both the projected speaking voice and the singing voice that proved so highly sensitive to the virilization effects. The implications for future prospective research studies and responsible clinical practice are discussed.
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3/34. Fat augmentation for glottic insufficiency.

    OBJECTIVES: Fat lipoinjection augmentation for glottic insufficiency has been used in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Relatively little information is available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with vocal atrophy, intubation trauma, and post-hemilaryngectomy defects. STUDY DESIGN: This paper retrospectively compares the efficiency of fat injection in patients with vocal cord paralysis (n = 9), vocal scar (n = 13), and vocal atrophy (n = 11). methods: The perceptual acoustic, phonatory function, and videolaryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after fat augmentation in 33 patients. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 9.7 months. Nineteen patients had excellent results. Three patients had no change. Five patients had late failure. Six patients were lost to follow-up. Phonatory function showed significant improvement in jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, maximal phonation time, grade, asthenia, and breathiness (P < .05). Videolaryngostroboscopic rating showed significant improvement in right linearity of the vocal fold edge, amplitude of vocal fold vibration, excursion of the mucosal wave, vibratory behavior, and phase symmetry (P < .05). Anterior defects did better than posterior defects. Small vocal fold defects did better than large defects. CONCLUSIONS: Fat injection is a good autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in management of patients with vocal fold scar, defect, or atrophy. Reabsorption of fat is a problem, but the procedure may be repeated.
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4/34. The treatment of essential voice tremor with botulinum toxin A: a longitudinal case report.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bilateral botulinum toxin injection into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles of a patient with essential voice tremor. Acoustic and aerodynamic data were collected weekly over a 16-week period. Flexible nasolaryngoscopy was performed prior to injection and 2, 6, 10, and 16 weeks postinjection. Perceptual analyses of the acoustic and nasolaryngoscopic data were performed. A reduction in frequency tremor and, to a lesser extent, amplitude tremor was observed during the 1-10 week period. Estimated laryngeal resistance decreased after injection and was accompanied in perceptual measures by a reduction in vocal effort, laryngeal tremor, and supraglottic hyperfunction. Essential voice tremor can be successfully attenuated with bilateral percutaneous injection of botulinum toxin A into the vocalis muscle.
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5/34. Atypical expiratory flow volume curve in an asthmatic patient with vocal cord dysfunction.

    BACKGROUND: vocal cord dysfunction can coexist with or masquerade as asthma. vocal cord dysfunction, when coexistent with asthma, contributes substantially to the refractory nature of the respiratory problem. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an asthmatic patient with vocal cord dysfunction and a previously unreported unique expiratory flow volume curve. RESULTS: A 16-year-old female, known to have asthma, developed increased frequency of her asthma exacerbations. spirometry, during symptoms, showed an extrathoracic airway obstruction with a reproducible unique abrupt drop and rise in the expiratory flow volume loop. laryngoscopy showed adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration and expiration. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique expiratory flow volume curve in an asthmatic with vocal cord dysfunction that resolved with panting maneuvers. Speech and psychological counseling helped prevent future attacks.
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6/34. Deviant vocal fold vibration as observed during videokymography: the effect on voice quality.

    Videokymographic images of deviant or irregular vocal fold vibration, including diplophonia, the transition from falsetto to modal voice, irregular vibration onset and offset, and phonation following partial laryngectomy were compared with the synchronously recorded acoustic speech signals. A clear relation was shown between videokymographic image sequences and acoustic speech signals, and the effect of irregular or incomplete vocal fold vibration patterns was recognized in the amount of perceived breathiness and roughness and by the harmonics-to-noise ratio in the speech signal. Mechanisms causing roughness are the presence of mucus, phase differences between the left and right vocal fold, and short-term frequency and amplitude modulation. It can be concluded that the use of simultaneously recorded videokymographic image sequences and speech signals contributes to the understanding of the effect of irregular vocal fold vibration on voice quality.
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7/34. Multidimensional voice program analysis (MDVP) and the diagnosis of pediatric vocal cord dysfunction.

    BACKGROUND: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) can present with signs and symptoms that mimic asthma. This may lead to unnecessary pharmacologic treatment or more invasive measures including intubation. Presently, the diagnosis of VCD can only be confirmed when a patient is symptomatic, via pulmonary function testing (PFT) or visualization of adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration by direct laryngoscopy. OBJECTIVE: Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) analysis. a computer program which analyzes various aspects of voice, can detect abnormal voice patterns of patients with upper airway pathology. We determined whether MDVP analysis was useful in the diagnosis of VCD. methods: We conducted chart reviews of patients referred to our department from 1995 to 1998 with the presumed diagnosis of VCD who had undergone MDVP analysis. The diagnosis of VCD was based on the presenting history, PFT results, laryngoscopy results, as well as voice evaluation conducted by a speech-language pathologist. We analyzed six consecutive patients referred for this investigation. We delineated common trends in the variables measured on MDVP analysis in VCD patients. and compared these with controls and other vocal cord pathology. RESULTS: Five cases of possible VCD had abnormalities in the MDVP variable of soft phonation index (SPI). All five also had abnormalities in the variation in fundamental frequency (vFo). In one case, MDVP analysis was conducted pre- and posttreatment for VCD, and SPI and vFo both normalized. In a sixth case of possible VCD. the diagnosis was not confirmed as the patient had normal PFTs and laryngoscopy. MDVP analysis was normal in this individual. The pattern of abnormal SPI and vFo was not seen in a group of normal controls or in patients with vocal cord nodules. CONCLUSIONS: MDVP analysis may be a useful tool when diagnosingVCD, as well as in evaluating response to treatment.
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8/34. Acoustic measures of phonatory improvement secondary to treatment by oral corticosteroids in a professional singer: a case report.

    Short-term administration of corticosteriods is sometimes indicated for professional voice users experiencing laryngeal edema and/or inflammation. Unfortunately, no data are available to document the effectiveness of these medications to improve phonatory parameters. We present a case report of a 32-year-old male professional singer with vocal fold edema experiencing imminent vocal demands who was prescribed a 6-day course (dose-pack) of oral methyl prednisolone. Endoscopic and stroboscopic evaluations were completed premedication and postmedication, and acoustic measures of phonatory function were obtained premedication, 3 days during the dose cycle, 5 days during the dose cycle, and 1 day postmedication. Postmedication results revealed an increase in fundamental frequency (F0) and large decreases in jitter, shimmer, long-term frequency, and amplitude variability. These corresponded with patient and evaluator perceptual measures of improved voice, and with endoscopic observations of reduced edema. The benefits and risks of corticosteroid therapy are discussed, specific to their use in the professional voice population.
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9/34. Spasmodic dysphonia combined with insufficient glottic closure by phonation.

    The authors describe the case history of a patient who suffered from symptoms deriving from two different origins. The patient's voice was spasmodic dysphonia-like interrupted and pressed. At the same time, his voice was powerless, too. The reason for this was that besides the spasmodic dysphonia caused by hyperkinesis, an incomplete closure of the vocal cords during phonation in the middle third was present. It was caused by the atrophy of the vocal cords. In order to eliminate the symptoms, initially we injected 25 IU Botox into the left vocal cord transcutaneously under the direction of EMG control. It resulted in a fluent, though breathy voice. In order to manage the closing insufficiency during phonation, we performed lipoaugmentation on the left vocal cord under high-frequency jet anaesthesia. The result of the two-step procedure was a fluent and clear voice. The speech without interruption lasted for 5 months, until the drug was eliminated. Of course, to prolong the result, the Botox injection should be repeated.
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10/34. Autogenous fat injection for vocal fold atrophy.

    Autogenous fat augmentation for glottic insufficiency has been used previously in patient treatment regimes. However, relatively little information is currently available regarding the effectiveness of fat injection for patients with vocal fold atrophy who have complete glottal closure (VFACGC). This paper compares, in retrospect, the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with VFACGC (n=21). The perceptual acoustic and phonatory functions and videolaryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after fat augmentation was performed on 13 patients. Mean follow-up time was 9.5 months. Fifteen patients displayed excellent results, four experienced post-procedure failure, and two were unavailable for follow-up analysis. The majority of VFACGC patients (71%) also suffered from muscular tension dysphonia (MTD) preoperatively. The procedure also resolved the MTD in half (54%) of the patients in this study. Perceptual rating showed significant improvement in grade, roughness and breathiness (P<0.05). The videolaryngostroboscopic rating showed significant improvements in vocal fold edge linearity (P<0.01), vocal fold vibration amplitude and mucosal wave excursion (P<0.05). VFACGC is commonly misdiagnosed as MTD and is, therefore, unresponsive to speech therapy that is targeted to the latter. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and should be considered as an option in the treatment of patients with VFACGC. Although fat re-absorption was identified as a problem, repeating the procedure could be considered to minimize the effect of such.
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