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1/20. colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects.

    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a further case in which two persons confused this highly poisonous plant with wild garlic (allium ursinum), a popular spice in the Central European cuisine. While one person merely complained about a 3-day episode of nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea, the second person died of multi-organ system derangements 48 h after the ingestion of the colchicum leaves. At autopsy hemorrhagic lung oedema, hypocellular bonemarrow, centrilobular fatty necrosis of the liver and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubuli of the kidneys were observed. A colchicine concentration of 7.5 micrograms/ml was found in the bile whereas no substance was detected in the postmortem blood.
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2/20. Caroli syndrome.

    We describe a case of Caroli syndrome (Caroli's disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis) in a 10-year-old boy with bilobar involvement and numerous renal cysts. liver transplantation offers the only hope for such patients.
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3/20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (61). Left primary megaureter with lower ureteric stone.

    Megaureter is infrequently diagnosed in adulthood. A 27-year-old man who presented with recurrent left loin pain was found to have megaureter on intravenous urography. His symptoms did not resolve after balloon dilatation of the 3 cm stenotic aperistaltic segment of the lower ureter. He eventually underwent ureteric re-implantation with satisfactory symptomatic relief.The resolution of obstruction was demonstrated radiologically. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and surveillance of megaureter, as well as indications for intervention, are discussed.
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4/20. Complications of ultrarapid opioid detoxification with subcutaneous naltrexone pellets.

    Rapid and ultrarapid opioid detoxification (ROD and UROD) centers promise quick, painless, same-day detoxification treatment for patients with opioid addiction. The goal of ROD and UROD is to provide a rapid transition from opioid dependency to oral naltrexone therapy. The patient is given general anesthesia and high-dose opioid antagonists. This induces a severe withdrawal but spares the patient the experience. In theory, the process is complete within four to five hours. The patient awakens without opioid dependency and is started on oral naltrexone. Any subsequent, persistent withdrawal symptoms are treated symptomatically. A novel, unapproved approach is to compound a pellet of naltrexone and implant it in the subcutaneous tissue. In theory, this should result in continuous therapeutic levels for this drug, and avoid issues with noncompliance. CASE SERIES: This article reports six cases of complications from the same detoxification center that performed UROD with naltrexone pellet implantation, including pulmonary edema, prolonged withdrawal, drug toxicity, withdrawal from cross-addiction to alcohol and benzodiazepines, variceal rupture, aspiration pneumonia, and death. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of this procedure are great and further studies should assess its safety and the novel use of naltrexone.
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5/20. Intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with osteoid formation: report of a pediatric case.

    CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 14-year-old girl with a 3-week history of severe progressive headache and intermittent vomiting. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large intensely enhancing mass, which seemed to arise from the right side of the cerebral fossa with implant base in the inferior face of the tentorium and significant mass effect on the nearby structures. A presumptive preoperative diagnosis of meningioma was made. Subtotal surgical resection was performed using the occipital approach. Histologically the neoplasms had the classic features of a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma associated with the focal presence of osteoid matrix. DISCUSSION: Clinical features, therapeutic approaches and prognosis of this rare tumour are discussed with regard to the known 30 cases in the literature.
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6/20. cardiac tamponade complicating postpericardiotomy syndrome.

    We present 2 children who developed postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) and the rare complication of cardiac tamponade after cardiac surgery, each requiring life-saving pericardiocentesis in the emergency department (ED). Each child presented with vomiting as a chief complaint, an initial sign that has not been reported previously. As the frequency of orthotopic heart transplants and other cardiac surgeries among children increases, it is likely that ED physicians will encounter PPS and cardiac tamponade with greater frequency, and it is imperative that it be recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We review PPS, cardiac tamponade, and the proper performance of a pericardiocentesis.
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7/20. Acute poisoning with autumn crocus (colchicum autumnale L.).

    INTRODUCTION: colchicum autumnale, commonly known as the autumn crocus or meadow saffron, contains the antimitotic colchicine, which binds to tubulin and prevents it forming microtubules that are part of the cytoskeleton in all cells. CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old woman ate a plant she thought to be wild garlic (allium ursinum). Ten hours later she arrived at the emergency department complaining of nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea. Ingestion of a poisonous plant was suspected and she was treated with gastric lavage, oral activated charcoal and an infusion of normal saline. toxicology analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed colchicine in the patient's gastric lavage, blood (5 microg/l) and urine (30 microg/l). She developed arrhythmias, liver failure, pancreatitis, ileus, and bone marrow suppression with pancytopenia. alopecia began in the third week. Treatment was supportive only. Five months later she had no clinical or laboratory signs of poisoning. DISCUSSION: The patient mistakenly ingested autumn crocus instead of wild garlic because of their great similarity. colchicine primarily blocks mitosis in tissues with rapid cell turnover; this results in gastroenterocolitis in the first phase of colchicine poisoning, bone marrow hypoplasia with pancytopenia in the second and alopecia in the third, all of which were present in our patient. colchicine toxicity in tissues without rapid cell turnover caused arrhythmias, acute liver failure and pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: colchicine poisoning can result in gastroenterocolitis followed by multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. In unexplained gastroenterocolitis after ingestion of wild plants as a salad or spice, especially when wild garlic is mentioned, we should always consider autumn crocus. diagnosis could be confirmed only by toxicology analyses. Management of colchicine poisoning is restricted to supportive therapy.
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8/20. Dietary poisoning with veratrum album--a report of two cases.

    veratrum album is a poisonous plant that can easily be mistaken for the yellow gentian, gentiana lutea, used in beverages. Two adult men were brought to the emergency department six hours after drinking gentian spirit. Each presented with nausea and vomiting, preceded by headache, developed within one hour after ingestion, and followed by diarrhea in one of the patients. vital signs were normal except for heart rates of 42 and 45 beats per minute in the two patients, respectively. Laboratory findings were unremarkable. Electrocardiograms revealed sinus bradycardia. Activated charcoal and antiemetics were given and the patients were admitted for observation of signs of toxicity. The further clinical course was uneventful. heart rates returned to normal within eight hours after admission. Retrospective investigation of the gentian beverage confirmed that V. album was mistaken for G. lutea. patients with clinical toxicity following unintentional ingestion of V. album should be kept under observation and generally recover with supportive care.
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9/20. Fly agaric (amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

    Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints.
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10/20. Carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans.

    OBJECTIVE: Cocklebur (xanthium strumarium) is an herbaceous annual plant with worldwide distribution. The seeds contain the glycoside carboxyatractyloside, which is highly toxic to animals. We describe nine cases of carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. The clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings and our therapeutic approach are also discussed. SUBJECTS AND methods: The patients presented with acute onset abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, palpitations, sweating and dyspnoea. Three of them developed convulsions followed by loss of consciousness and death. RESULTS: Laboratory findings showed raised liver enzymes, indicating severe hepatocellular damage. BUN and creatinine levels were raised, especially in the fatal cases who also displayed findings of consumption coagulopathy. CPK-MB values indicative of myocardial injury were also raised, especially in the fatal cases. Three of the patients died within 48 hours of ingesting carboxyatractyloside. Post-mortem histopathology of the liver confirmed centrilobular hepatic necrosis and renal proximal tubular necrosis, secondary changes owing to increased permeability and microvascular haemorrhage in the cerebrum and cerebellum, and leucocytic infiltrates in the muscles and various organs including pancreas, lungs and myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Carboxyatractyloside poisoning causes multiple organ dysfunction and can be fatal. Coagulation abnormalities, hyponatraemia, marked hypoglycaemia, icterus and hepatic and renal failure are signs of a poor prognosis. No antidote is available and supportive therapy is the mainstay of treatment.
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