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1/65. Internal orbital fractures in the pediatric age group: characterization and management.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific characteristics and management of internal orbital fractures in the pediatric population. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four pediatric patients between the ages of 1 and 18 years with internal orbital ("blowout") fractures. methods: Records of pediatric patients presenting with internal orbital fractures over a 5-year period were reviewed, including detailed preoperative and postoperative evaluations, surgical management, and medical management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ocular motility restriction, enophthalmos, nausea and vomiting, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Floor fractures were by far the most common fracture type (71%). Eleven of 34 patients required surgical intervention for ocular motility restriction. Eight were trapdoor-type fractures with soft-tissue incarceration; five had nausea and vomiting. Early surgical intervention (<2 weeks) resulted in a more complete return of ocular motility compared with the late intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Trapdoor-type fractures, usually involving the orbital floor, are common in the pediatric age group. These fractures may be small with minimal soft-tissue incarceration, making the findings on computed tomography scans quite subtle at times. Marked motility restriction and nausea/vomiting should alert the physician to the possibility of a trapdoor-type fracture and the need for prompt surgical intervention.
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2/65. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis associated with esophageal perforation.

    We report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with lower esophageal stricture which perforated into the peritoneal cavity after the patient vomited. A 61-year-old man was admitted with severe chest and epigastric pain after dysphagia and vomiting. Under a diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal perforation, laparotomy was performed. The anterior wall of the abdominal esophagus was found to have ruptured, and proximal gastrectomy with abdominal esophagectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with esophageal stricture distal to the site of rupture, and postoperative endoscopy showed diffuse pseudodiverticulosis in the remaining esophagus. The patient is free of symptoms 5 years after the surgery. This case suggests that careful treatment may be indicated in patients with esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with stricture and elevated intraluminal pressure, to minimize the possibility of severe complications such as esophageal perforation.
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3/65. Type IV hiatal hernia post laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: report of a case.

    A postoperative hiatal hernia is a rare but serious complication of fundoplication. We report herein a 62-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vomiting 2 years following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. At laparotomy, the stomach and the transverse colon were intrathoracic (type IV hiatal hernia); the esophageal hiatus was markedly dilated with no evidence that they had been approximated. At 18 months follow-up, she is doing very well apart from occasional heartburn. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose postoperative hiatal hernias. A routine closure of the crura with nonabsorbable suture material and an avoidance of iatrogenic pneumothorax may help to reduce the occurrence of this problem.
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4/65. Boerhaave syndrome: report of a case treated non-operatively.

    An unique case of Boerhaave's syndrome is presented in which the patient survived without any surgical treatment. We believe that this was due to non-contamination of the mediastinal and pleural cavities as shown by serial contrast roentgenograms of the esophagus.
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5/65. Caudal epidural blood patch for treating intractable vomiting in a child after placement of a permanent intrathecal catheter.

    Postdural puncture cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak most often manifests as a postdural puncture headache (PDPH). The reported frequency in young children varies (1-4). Persistent CSF leak may also be present without PDPH. We present a case of postoperative nausea and vomiting resulting from a presumed lumbar CSF leak in a nonverbal child after surgical placement of a permanent intrathecal catheter. Treatment with an epidural blood patch (EBP) via the caudal approach resulted in complete relief of symptoms.
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6/65. Endobronchial inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung.

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (also called plasma cell granuloma, histiocytoma and x-anthofibroma) is a benign, slow growing lesion which may present with cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and unresolving pneumonia or can be discovered radiographically as a localised lesion. It has been reported in individuals up to 70 years old, but approximately two-thirds have developed in individuals under 30 years of age. The sex incidence is approximately equal. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the lung are usually peripheral lesions but may occasionally be endobronchial. We report the case of an endobronchial inflammatory pseudotumor in a 17-year-old girl who presented with unresolving right-sided pneumonia. Appropriate radiological, bronchoscopic and histopathological investigations lead to accurate pre-operative diagnosis and early complete surgical resection through a limited right main bronchus incision (bronchotomy). The patient made good postoperative recovery and an excellent prognosis is anticipated.
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7/65. Intraluminal duodenal obstruction by a gastric band following erosion.

    BACKGROUND: duodenal obstruction occurred 4 years following gastric banding for morbid obesity, which had had a good result. METHOD: A 56-year-old female with a history of gastric banding presented with duodenal obstruction. RESULT: Physical and radiological examination was able to give the diagnosis. At surgery, the gastric band in the distal duodenum was removed. She was discharged on postoperative day 4, with no complication. At 6 months following discharge, her nausea and vomiting have not recurred. CONCLUSION: Following gastric banding, band erosion through the gastric wall and internalization into the lumen can cause small bowel obstruction.
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8/65. rupture of the round window membrane.

    A perilymph leak into the middle ear through a ruptured round window membrane results in the symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo, either singly or in combination. The case histories of thirteen patients with such a fistula are described, these patients having in common a predisposing incident which had led to a rise of C.S.F. pressure. Symptomatology and the results of investigation are analysed and operative technique and results discussed. While it appears that vertigo uniformly responds very satisfactorily to operative treatment the improvement in hearing loss and tinnitus is more difficult to predict.
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9/65. Gastric rupture caused by acute gastric distention in non-neonatal children: clinical analysis of 3 cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To study gastric rupture, a progressive, rapid and high mortality condition, caused by acute gastric distention (GRAGD) and its appropriate diagnosis and treatment. methods: The etiology, pathology, clinical manifestations and experiences in 3 children with GRAGD were reviewed. RESULTS: Case 1: After diagnosing GRAGD and stabilizing her shock with massive fluid replacement, gastrostomy was performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful because of fasting, suction, fluid infusion, correction of acidosis and supporting nutrition. Case 2: After diagnosing gastric distention which subsided with conservative therapy for 9 days, she suddenly had gastric rupture when she had not eaten for 6 days. She died of shock and had no chance for surgery. Case 3: The patient had sudden abdominal pain, distention and vomiting with severe shock for 4 days. Emergency surgery found gastric rupture and the method was the same as Case 1. The patient survived but has brain impairment. Case 1 and 3 showed multifocal transmural necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms like overeating, bulimia, changes in kind of food, X-ray showing large distended stomach and massive pneumoperitoneum were seen after gastric rupture and can help to diagnose this condition. Clinical course of gastric distention with toxic shock progresses rapidly, however subsequent gastric rupture exacerbates the shock and makes the treatment difficult treatment. It is extremely important that a laparotomy be performed at once after stabilizing shock with massive fluid replacement. Postoperative nutritional support and fluid replacement will increase survival. It is very important that when gastric distention disappears after conservative therapy, the doctor should assess carefully whether the gastric wall recovery is under way by using effective methods of examination.
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10/65. De novo cerebral arteriovenous malformation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are generally thought to have a congenital cause. This is the first report of an angiographically proven de novo cerebral AVM in an adult patient without previous vascular abnormality. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old African-American woman developed multiple cranial nerve deficits and ataxia over the course of a few days after a streptococcal throat infection. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a hyperintense signal in the midbrain with extension into the diencephalon. A cerebral angiogram performed at that time to exclude vasculitis revealed normal cerebral vasculature. The patient was treated with corticosteroids, and symptoms resolved. Subsequently, at the age of 32, this patient presented with a severe headache and emesis, but with no focal neurological deficit. INTERVENTION: The patient's cranial computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a right posterior temporal intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and cerebral angiography revealed a new 3- by 2-cm AVM. The patient underwent microsurgical resection of the AVM and associated hematoma. Postoperative angiography revealed no evidence of residual AVM. CONCLUSION: This study details the case of a woman who developed a de novo cerebral AVM during a 6-year period. This report challenges the conventional belief that all AVMs have a congenital cause.
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