Cases reported "Vomiting"

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1/30. Psychogenic vomiting: report of two cases.

    Two patients were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of psychogenic vomiting of more than 9 months' duration. Both were treated with a combination of pharmacotherapy, relaxation training, cognitive therapy and supportive psychotherapy. Behavioral therapy and verbal catharsis were also used in one of the cases involving bereavement. The intervention was not directly aimed at the vomiting, but at the aspects of the patients' stress and emotional problems. Change in condition was assessed on basis of the frequency of vomiting and the severity of anxiety and depression. Vomiting was found to be positively related to anxiety but not to depression. These 2 patients improved to the extent that the disturbance caused by vomiting was significantly reduced, and the reduction was closely related to the severity of anxiety. Both were also found to have similar personality traits and family types, which have been reported to be related to psychogenic vomiting. We review the characteristics of psychogenic vomiting and relate some important considerations for treating Chinese psychogenic vomiting cases.
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2/30. Access to white bread as an intervention for chronic ruminative vomiting.

    research has demonstrated that providing extra and sometimes unlimited food quantities following meals can be effective in reducing or eliminating ruminative vomiting in persons with developmental disabilities. In this study, providing access to white bread was evaluated as an alternative method of satiation-based treatment of rumination displayed by an 18-year old male with mental retardation. White bread was made available during 1-h periods following daily meals and this intervention produced a reduction in ruminating to near zero levels throughout the young man's waking hours. Long-term follow-up assessment revealed maintenance of low-frequency responding. Issues related to satiation treatment programs for ruminative vomiting are discussed.
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3/30. A woman with abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. A very late aftermath of Billroth II gastrectomy.

    patients with a history of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy who present with a symptom complex of postprandial nausea, fullness, and bilious vomiting leading to relief should be suspected of having an afferent loop syndrome. Diagnosis depends on barium radiography and upper intestinal endoscopy. Surgical correction is the treatment. The current age of medical therapy has dramatically decreased the frequency and necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease. However, we should not forget the lessons of the past and fail to diagnose a patient who has a chronic complication of a previously common operation.
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4/30. zollinger-ellison syndrome. Clinical presentation in 261 patients.

    We prospectively evaluated the initial presenting symptoms in 261 patients with zollinger-ellison syndrome (ZES) over a 25-year period. Twenty-two percent of the patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (MEN-1) with ZES. Mean age at onset was 41.1 /- 0.7 years, with MEN-1 patients presenting at a younger age than those with sporadic ZES (p < 0.0001). Three percent of the patients had onset of the disease < age 20 years, and 7% > 60 years. A mean delay to diagnosis of 5.2 /- 0.4 years occurred in all patients. A shorter duration of symptoms was noted in female patients and in patients with liver metastases. abdominal pain and diarrhea were the most common symptoms, present in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. heartburn and weight loss, which were uncommonly reported in early series, were present in 44% and 17% of patients, respectively. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the initial presentation in a quarter of the patients. patients rarely presented with only 1 symptom (11%); pain and diarrhea was the most frequent combination, occurring in 55% of patients. An important presenting sign that should suggest ZES is prominent gastric body folds, which were noted on endoscopy in 94% of patients; however, esophageal stricture and duodenal or pyloric scarring, reported in numerous case reports, were noted in only 4%-10%. patients with MEN-1 presented less frequently with pain and bleeding and more frequently with nephrolithiasis. Comparing the clinical presentation before the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (pre-1980, n = 36), after the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (1981-1989, n = 118), and after the introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (> 1990, n = 106) demonstrates no change in age of onset; delay in diagnosis; frequency of pain, diarrhea, weight loss; or frequency of complications of severe peptic disease (bleeding, perforations, esophageal strictures, pyloric scarring). Since the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists, fewer patients had a previous history of gastric acid-reducing surgery or total gastrectomy. Only 1 patient evaluated after 1980 had a total gastrectomy, and this was done in 1977. The location of the primary tumor in general had a minimal effect on the clinical presentation, causing no effect on the age at presentation, delay in diagnosis, frequency of nephrolithiasis, or severity of disease (strictures, perforations, peptic ulcers, pyloric scarring). Disease extent had a minimal effect on symptoms, with only bleeding being more frequent in patients with localized disease. patients with advanced disease presented at a later age and with a shorter disease history (p = 0.001), were less likely to have MEN-1 (p = 0.0087), and tended to have diarrhea more frequently (p = 0.079). A correct diagnosis of ZES was made by the referring physician initially in only 3% of the patients. The most common misdiagnosis made were idiopathic peptic ulcer disease (71%), idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (7%), and chronic idiopathic diarrhea (7%). Other less common misdiagnosis were crohn disease (2%) and various diarrhea diseases (celiac sprue [3%], irritable bowel syndrome [3%], infectious diarrhea [2%], and lactose intolerance [1%]). Other medical disorders were present in 55% of all patients; patients with sporadic disease had fewer other medical disorders than patients with MEN-1 (45% versus 90%, p < 0.00001). hyperparathyroidism and a previous history of kidney stones were significantly more frequent in patients with MEN-1 than in those with sporadic ZES. Pulmonary disorders and other malignancies were also more common in patients with MEN-1. These results demonstrate that abdominal pain, diarrhea, and heartburn are the most common presenting symptoms in ZES and that heartburn and diarrhea are more common than previously reported. The presence of weight loss especially with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or heartburn is an important clue suggesting the presence of gastrinoma. The presence of prominent gastric body folds, a clinical sign that has not been appreciated, is another important clue to the diagnosis of ZES. patients with MEN-1 presented at an earlier age; however, in general, the initial symptoms were similar to patients without MEN-1. gastrinoma extent and location have minimal effects on the clinical presentation. overall, neither the introduction of successful antisecretory therapy nor widespread publication about ZES, attempting to increase awareness, has shortened the delay in diagnosis or reduced the incidence of patients presenting with peptic complications. The introduction of successful antisecretory therapy, however, has dramatically decreased the rate of surgery in controlling the acid secretion and likely led to patients presenting with less severe symptoms and fewer complications. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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5/30. Caudal epidural blood patch for treating intractable vomiting in a child after placement of a permanent intrathecal catheter.

    Postdural puncture cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak most often manifests as a postdural puncture headache (PDPH). The reported frequency in young children varies (1-4). Persistent CSF leak may also be present without PDPH. We present a case of postoperative nausea and vomiting resulting from a presumed lumbar CSF leak in a nonverbal child after surgical placement of a permanent intrathecal catheter. Treatment with an epidural blood patch (EBP) via the caudal approach resulted in complete relief of symptoms.
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6/30. food satiation as a procedure to decelerate vomiting.

    A food satiation procedure was used in two experiments to decelerate the frequency of vomiting responses in two profoundly retarded adults who exhibited well-defined vomiting-ruminatory response chains. For several years prior to this study, the subjects had exhibited a history of vomiting behavior. satiation was accomplished during regular meals and consisted of allowing the subjects to eat until a satiation criterion of food refusal was achieved. The results revealed a 94 percent reduction of vomiting in Experiment 1 and a 50 percent response reduction in Experiment 2. Ten-day follow-up sessions indicated that the response reduction was maintained in both experiments. In Experiment 1 the subject exhibited a 4.99 kg weight gain at the 10-day follow-up with a total of 13.61 kg weight gain at a 4-week posttreatment weight check.
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7/30. Total colonic aganglionosis: a case study.

    Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a rare, hybrid form of Hirschsprung's disease. It is a functional rather than mechanical obstruction, characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the bowel wall. Ganglion cells regulate normal colonic peristaltic activity. Paucity of ganglion cells results in an aganglionic segment of bowel that is functionally abnormal and does not propagate the normal peristaltic wave that moves to it from the proximal ganglionic bowel. The lesion originates in the rectum and extends proximally over a variable distance of the bowel. The further the lesion extends, the more difficult the management becomes. Clinical and radiologic findings can be useful in diagnosis, but they are not pathognomonic. The definitive diagnosis is made following suction biopsy of the rectum, colon, and ileum. Ultimate treatment for TCA is surgical, although no single surgical procedure has been proven superior. Total parenteral nutrition during the postoperative period is essential to ensure appropriate fluid and electrolyte status. Improvements in supportive care and earlier recognition and diagnosis of TCA in infants have led to a significantly increased rate of survival since the lesion was first recognized. The embryology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management prognosis, and outcome of TCA are discussed. A case study is presented.
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8/30. The evolution of lemierre syndrome: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    lemierre syndrome (postanginal septicemia) is caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection with secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and frequent metastatic infections. A high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. fusobacterium necrophorum is the usual etiologic agent. The disease progresses in several steps. The first stage is the primary infection, which is usually a pharyngitis (87.1% of cases). This is followed by local invasion of the lateral pharyngeal space and IJV septic thrombophlebitis (documented in 71.5% of cases), and finally, the occurrence of metastatic complications (present in 90% of cases at the time of diagnosis). A sore throat is the most common symptom during the primary infection (82.5% of cases). During invasion of the lateral pharyngeal space and IJV septic thrombophlebitis, a swollen and/or tender neck is the most common finding (52.2% of patients) and should be considered a red flag in patients with current or recent pharyngitis. The most common site of metastatic infection is the lungs (79.8% of cases). In contrast to the preantibiotic era, cavitating pneumonia and septic arthritis are now uncommon. Most patients (82.5%) had fever at some stage during the course of the disease. Gastrointestinal complaints such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting were common (49.5% of cases). An elevated white blood cell count occurred in 75.2% of cases. hyperbilirubinemia with slight elevation of liver enzyme levels occurred in one-third of patients, but frank jaundice was uncommon, in contrast to its high frequency reported in the preantibiotic era. We conclude that, most likely as a consequence of widespread antibiotic use for pharyngeal infections, the typical course of the disease has changed since Lemierre's original description. The typical triad in our series was: pharyngitis, a tender/swollen neck, and noncavitating pulmonary infiltrates. The previous classical description of severe sepsis with cavitating pneumonia and septic arthritis was not commonly seen in our review. mortality was low in our series (6.4%), but significant morbidity occurred, which was likely preventable by early diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology, natural history, diagnostic methods for internal jugular vein thrombosis, and management are discussed.
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9/30. Diarrhoea, vomiting and ACE inhibitors:--an important cause of acute renal failure.

    The occurrence of severe acute renal failure in 3 patients who developed diarrhoea while taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors led us to undertake a retrospective cohort survey to determine the frequency with which diarrhoea and vomiting are associated with acute renal failure in patients taking this class of drug. serum creatinine was measured as part of the diagnostic workup of 2398 consecutive admissions to an acute medical receiving unit in a district general hospital. Outcome measures were the presence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting, and whether taking an ACE inhibitor, NSAID or diuretic at the time of admission, also previous, initial and follow up serum creatinine concentrations. Peak serum creatinine in the 3 cases was 1159, 989 and 765 micromol/l. None of the 3 required dialysis and all recovered renal function completely after receiving large volumes of intravenous fluid. In the cohort study, 89 of 2398(3.7%) admissions had serum creatinine >/=200 micromol/l. Nine were regular dialysis patients. Of the remaining patients, 30 (37.5%) were taking an ACE inhibitor. Six of 30 (20%) gave a history of diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Median creatinine concentration in this group was 135 (range 111-209) micromol/l before admission, 292 (216-724) micromol/l when first seen in hospital, and 134 (94-219) micromol/l following the withdrawal of drug therapy and fluid replacement. In conclusion, volume depletion causing acute renal failure in patients taking ACE inhibitors is not uncommon. Such patients and their general practitioners should be aware that reversible renal impairment may occur during intercurrent illnesses, particularly if characterised by diarrhoea and/or vomiting.
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10/30. acarbose treatment of infant dumping syndrome: extensive study of glucose dynamics and long-term follow-up.

    dumping syndrome is a sequel of gastric surgery in adults and Nissen fundoplication in children. The syndrome is characterized by various gastrointestinal symptoms as well as irritability, diaphoresis and lethargy. Shortly after a meal, symptoms are associated with hyperglycemia (early dumping), followed by late dumping symptoms associated with reactive hypoglycemia. Several therapeutic and dietary manipulations failed to control these symptoms in previous reports as well as in an infant we have followed after Nissen fundoplication. acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, has been used sporadically in adults after gastric surgery, but only once in children. In most of these studies, the effect of acarbose (on reactive hypoglycemia) was evaluated over several hours postprandially or after oral glucose load. In our study, we recorded glucose dynamics by a continuous glucose monitor system over 2 to 3 days before and during acarbose treatment, while the patient was on a well-controlled diet. These measurements (720 before and 832 on therapy) suggested that both early and late dumping symptoms are causally related to the rate of glucose elevation and decline, rather than to glucose peak and nadir, respectively. acarbose attenuated both postprandial glucose hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia, which subsequently led to a significant reduction in dumping symptoms. In a follow-up of 14 months, acarbose was well tolerated and the frequency of dumping symptoms was remarkably reduced.
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