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1/3. Studies on the pathogenesis of Bartter's syndrome.

    There is no agreement concerning the primary pathogenetic event leading to Bartter's syndrome. Free water clearance and distal fractional chloride reabsorption were abnormally low in our patient with Bartter's syndrome. This series of investigations in this patient with Bartter's syndrome and hypomagnesemia was undertaken to determine if the defect in chloride transport in the ascending limb and the associated renal potassium wasting was specifically related to potassium depletion, increased prostaglandin production or magnesium depletion. Neither potassium repletion, indomethacin administration nor magnesium repletion had an effect on the defect in free water clearance or in distal fractional chloride reabsorption. However, magnesium infusion eliminated renal potassium wasting. These observations suggest that the proximate cause of Bartter's syndrome in this patient is a primary defect in the reabsorption of sodium chloride in the ascending limb and not renal potassium wasting. however, hypomagnesemia may contribute to the renal potassium wasting seen in this syndrome.
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2/3. Darrow-Gamble disease: ultrasonographic and radiographic findings.

    A case of Darrow-Gamble disease is presented with review of the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearance of this rare cause of profound chronic diarrhea beginning at birth. The disease is caused by a defect of active intestinal chloride transport which results in a large loss of the electrolytes and water. To prevent growth retardation and renal involvement an adequate replacement therapy is necessary. This uncommon anomaly was detected by ultrasound 3 weeks before delivery. Both sonography and radiography were useful diagnostic tools in the postnatal period. The clinical features of the lesion are also discussed.
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3/3. Congenital chloridorrhoea. A question of reversed brush border transport processes and varying junctional tightness.

    The surprising results of intestinal perfusion studies in an 8-month-old child with congenital chloridorrhoea offered a unique opportunity not only to elucidate the underlying defect, but also to test the adequacy of proposed models for normal intestinal transport. In ileum Na, K and Cl as well as water were secreted and HCO3 absorbed. Lumen was 91 mV negative to blood. Only Cl was transported against both electrical and chemical gradients, but discrepancies between observed and predicted Na flux ratios suggested the presence of a Na-absorbing mechanism as well. Mucosa was impermeable to Cl from the lumen side. 2.5 mM glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC) mediated Na and water absorption and abolished any transport of Cl. PD was -95 mV. In colon a similar pattern was observed and mucosa to serosa fluxes of Cl were abnormally low. Rectal PD was -116 mV. GCDC made the epithelium more absorptive in function, but contrary to ileum the effect was due to an increase of Na and Cl fluxes from mucosa to serosa. The patient was at that time in severe electrolyte imbalance. He was reinvestigated three months later when he was in a good clinical condition with normal serum electrolytes. Net transfer of electrolytes and water and bidirectional fluxes of Cl and K were unchanged while bidirectional Na fluxes had increased considerably and PD decreased to -18 mV. Rectal PD was -45 mV. In jejunum water and electrolyte transport were normal and PD -3 mV. It is tentatively concluded that the abnormal transport in ileum is due to an inversion of the brush border transport processes, which also satisfies the paradoxical effects of GCDC. Furthermore, Na and Cl seem to migrate through separate pathways. A varying degree of junctional tightness, which is almost completely cationic, may be responsible for the functional differences observed in resonse to improvement of the general electrolyte status.
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