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1/25. ventricular flutter in a neonate--severe electrolyte imbalance caused by urinary tract infection in the presence of urinary tract malformation.

    male infants under the age of 3 months presenting with pyelonephritis in the presence of urinary tract malformation (UTM) are prone to transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. This may resemble congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and metabolic acidosis are the primary findings that permit the diagnosis of CAH. We report a case of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism resulting from pyelonephritis and vesicouretric reflux. The 17-day-old boy presented with a salt-losing episode simulating adrenal insufficiency. An initial diagnosis of CAH was made. The severe metabolic imbalance resulted in ventricular flutter that resolved after correction of the metabolic acidosis and the electrolyte and volume depletion. early diagnosis is essential because both conditions are potentially fatal and treatment differs significantly. Differential diagnosis may be achieved by urinalysis and abdominal ultrasound scan.
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2/25. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in the clinical management of a pregnant woman undergoing dialysis.

    We report a case of successful pregnancy in a woman who was initially diagnosed with renal failure in mid-pregnancy. She was started on hemodialysis, and her fluid balance was serially monitored with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Her body weight decreased and bioelectrical impedance values increased, along with resolution of pulmonary edema in the process of the removal of excessive fluid retention with hemodialysis. The bioelectrical impedance values decreased immediately after the usual dose of oral ritodrine was administered, partly because producing sodium and water retention by ritodrine were enhanced in the setting of fluid imbalances. This decrease preceded the onset of pulmonary edema, while no changes were noted in maternal body weight before hemodialysis. These results suggest that the serial measurement of bioelectrical impedance values enables more reliable and earlier detection of abnormal water retention in pregnant women undergoing dialysis than the effect of body weight changes.
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3/25. Surgical treatment of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumor: a case report.

    A 68-year-old woman presented with secretory watery diarrhea causing hypokalimia, hypoalbuminemia and dehydration for 5 years. Subsequent investigations including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning revealed a mass measuring 7 x 6 cm in the pancreatic tail. The diagnosis of pancreatic VIPomas was suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy after resuscitation of electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and malnutrition. The pathological examination with histoimmunochemical stain confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperative course is uneventful and the patient does not have symptoms any longer during the follow-up period.
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4/25. The 12-lead electrocardiogram in anorexia nervosa: A report of 2 cases followed by a retrospective study.

    anorexia nervosa (AN) has been associated with various cardiac disorders and several electrocardiographic abnormalities, the most prominent being sudden death and prolonged QT duration and dispersion. We report 2 cases of AN with marked repolarization abnormalities, the first clearly related to electrolyte imbalance, the second without a good explanation from metabolic, electrolytic or pharmacological sources. A retrospective analysis of 47 other consecutive patients with AN showed that sinus bradycardia was the most common ECG finding, but that QT or QTc interval prolongation was not a typical feature, being present in only 1 patient. The sole variable slightly correlated with QTc duration was the serum potassium concentration. Consequently, marked repolarization changes (QT interval and/or T wave morphology) in AN should not be taken as a feature of the disease, but should call for the search of potential causes such as metabolic and electrolytic disturbances, drug effects, or a possible genetic component.
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5/25. Acute renal failure and metabolic disturbances in the short bowel syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: short bowel syndrome (SBS) describes a malabsorptive state caused by extensive loss of small intestinal length. AIM: To improve understanding of the metabolic complications of SBS. DESIGN: observational study of five patients with SBS who presented with acute renal failure. RESULTS: Acute renal failure in our patients was predominantly due to salt and fluid depletion, and sepsis. Electrolyte imbalance was a major cause of morbidity. Metabolic acidosis was seen in three patients, and may arise from excessive gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, compounded by impaired renal homeostasis. Our patients also manifested disturbances of calcium and magnesium homeostasis. DISCUSSION: patients with SBS are at high risk of renal failure. Prevention of this complication requires close monitoring and the maintenance of sodium homeostasis through increased intake and measures to reduce loss (e.g. anti-motility agents and large bowel re-anastomosis), and calcium, magnesium and vitamin d supplementation.
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6/25. Two autopsy cases of diffuse gastrointestinal polyposis with ectodermal changes. Cronkhite-canada syndrome.

    Two autopsy cases of Cronkhite-canada syndrome were reported. The caused of hypoproteinemia, electrolyte imbalance and ectodermal changes were discussed with reference to previously reported cases. The mechanism of protein loss was probably due to outflow into the intestinal lumen of the mucous substance in the cystically dilated glands, directly and/or indirectly followed by loss of mucosal surface. Electrolyte imbalance probably developed from gastrointestinal loss as well as poor substitution. The ectodermal changes were probably not a subsequent part of the emaciation or hypoproteinemis, but an inherent part of this disease. Therapy, whether substitution or surgical procedure, should be selected in order to control the general condition of the patient.
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7/25. Common electrolyte imbalances associated with malignancy.

    More than one million Americans will be diagnosed with cancer during 1992, and 50% will be cured of their disease. Of those individuals not cured of the malignancy, survival time after diagnosis has increased tremendously compared to 1980. Because of advances in therapy and the increase in long-term survival, the presence of cancer patients in critical care units should no longer represent either a medical contradiction or an ethical dilemma when the condition requiring critical care is potentially reversible. Many of these individuals may become patients in critical care settings as a result of specific electrolyte imbalances caused by the malignant disease or treatment of malignancy. Although the imbalances often are temporary, they can be life-threatening without intervention. The most common temporary electrolyte imbalances associated with malignant conditions are hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, and tumor lysis syndrome. critical care nurses can contribute skill and knowledge in ameliorating these conditions so that the person with cancer can have better quality and longer survival time.
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8/25. Two cases of hyperkalemia after administration of hypertonic mannitol during craniotomy.

    mannitol is used commonly as an osmotic diuretic to reduce intracranial pressure during the perioperative period of craniotomy. The rapid administration of mannitol solution can cause an imbalance of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Here, we report two cases of mannitol-induced hyperkalemia. We demonstrate that administration of mannitol during craniotomy increases potassium iron concentration, and in some cases it may cause disturbance of cardiac function.
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9/25. Outpatient management of electrolyte imbalances associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are eating disorders with significant morbidity that often go undetected. nurses and primary care providers are encouraged to recognize the early signs and symptoms of these disorders and to intervene appropriately. Several case reports in this article describe patients with these disorders and various related electrolyte abnormalities. Understanding electrolyte imbalances associated with both disorders may lead to earlier effective intervention and overall improved health outcomes.
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10/25. Pediatric fluid and electrolyte balance: critical care case studies.

    The care of the critically ill infant or child often is complicated further by disruptions in fluid or electrolyte balance. Prompt recognition of these disruptions is essential to the care of these patients. This article provides an overview of the principles of fluid and electrolyte balance in the critically ill infant and child. Imbalances in fluid homeostasis and imbalances in sodium, potassium, and calcium homeostasis are presented in a case study format.
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