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1/2. Systemic capillary leak syndrome preceding plasma cell leukaemia.

    We report a patient with plasma cell leukaemia with systemic capillary leak syndrome, a rare disorder often associated with monoclonal gammopathy. In this patient, the manifestation of capillary leak syndrome antedated the diagnosis of plasma cell leukaemia by 5-6 months. During that time, he was repeatedly admitted to the hospital with weight gain, congestive cardiac failure, cough and anasarca in the presence of normal renal function, liver function and normal echocardiography. On presentation, a serum protein electrophoresis showed monoclonal IgG; the blood smear showed 60% plasma cells with a total count of 4.4 x 10(9)/l. A bone marrow aspirate showed replacement of the normal marrow by sheets of immature plasma cells. His systemic capillary leak syndrome initially responded to decongestive therapy with terbutaline and aminophylline but later on he became refractory to them and responded to vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) combination therapy only transiently. Danocrine and pentoxifylline, added during VAD chemotherapy, did not produce a durable response in capillary leak syndrome, which finally responded to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). After PBSCT, he remained free of capillary leak for 10 months without terbutaline, pentoxifylline corticosteroids, aminophylline or danocrine. His disease relapsed without recurrence of the capillary leak. He died 15 months after PBSCT and 20 months after the diagnosis of plasma cell leukaemia.
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keywords = capillary leak syndrome, systemic capillary leak syndrome, systemic capillary leak, capillary leak, leak syndrome, systemic capillary, capillary, leak
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2/2. Sweet's syndrome associated with retinoic acid syndrome in a patient with promyelocytic leukemia.

    We report a case of Sweet's syndrome associated with retinoic acid syndrome in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Sweet's syndrome appeared on day 6 of ATRA therapy for promyelocytic leukemia. It was associated with a mild retinoic acid syndrome, an inflammatory syndrome occurring in 25% of patients treated with ATRA and characterized by features of capillary leakage with systemic inflammatory signs. The ATRA therapy was discontinued for 11 days and treatment with corticosteroids improved the systemic and cutaneous signs. Only 11 cases of Sweet's syndrome associated with ATRA have been previously reported in the literature, involving only the skin in eight cases, the skin and muscles in two cases, and the lung, kidney, fascia, and muscles in one case. Sweet's syndrome was followed by retinoic acid syndrome in one of these cases. The previously reported cases are reviewed, and the mechanisms of Sweet's and retinoic acid syndromes and the link between them are discussed.
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ranking = 0.020325571986589
keywords = capillary leak, capillary, leak
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