Cases reported "Weight Loss"

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1/8. Treatment of affective disorder and obesity with topiramate.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of weight loss and mood stabilization in a patient being treated with the antiepileptic drug topiramate. CASE SUMMARY: A 37-year-old obese white woman with affective instability and obesity was being treated with adjunctive topiramate therapy. The patient lost 10 kg over 10 weeks of treatment with topiramate and improved clinically, as evidenced by a reduction in the number of times that she had to be admitted to a management unit for constant observation, and a decrease in the number of times that mechanical restraints or medication interventions were required for aggressive outbursts. Furthermore, the patient successfully completed two home visits while receiving topiramate therapy and was out of the hospital on her third home visit at the time of this writing. DISCUSSION: This case further strengthens previous reports that topiramate may be useful in treating affective disorders as well as inducing weight loss in a patient population in which weight gain is common. The patient discussed in this case report had no acute illnesses or changes in health status, no changes in diet, and no changes in her medications that could have accounted for the sudden weight loss. In addition, the patient's behavior did not improve until topiramate was added as adjunctive therapy of valproic acid, citalopram, and chlorpromazine during an adequate trial period. CONCLUSIONS: Controlled studies need to be performed to evaluate the use of topiramate in the psychiatric population and, in particular, the benefits of topiramate therapy in psychiatric patients with an additional diagnosis of obesity.
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2/8. Improvement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after significant weight loss: case report.

    A 17-year-old obese boy found to have familial apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on routine screening was enrolled in a weight loss program on the basis of the hypothesis that significant weight loss would improve his cardiac status. He was followed with serial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and blood pressure and pulse rate measurements. Within 1 year, he lost 49 kg, with a body mass index reduction from 43.6 to 28.1 kg/m2 and associated reductions in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean heart rate, rate pressure product, and echocardiographic indices of left ventricular mass that resulted in a change from the initial geometric finding of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy to a "normal" left ventricular mass with minimal asymmetric apical left ventricular thickening. Significant weight loss in an obese adolescent with presumed familial apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was associated with striking improvement in cardiac functional indices, which could have profound implications for long-term cardiovascular risk.
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3/8. Providing nutritional information to people with lung disease.

    Studies have shown that about 30 per cent of people who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lose weight. weight loss has been shown to be associated with a reduction in lung function (Poole, 1993). Conversely, patients who are overweight have an increased respiratory workload due to their extra weight. Excess weight also increases the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and osteoarthritis (Collins, 2003). Many patients are unaware of changes in their nutritional status. The case study in Box 1 provides an illustration of this.
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4/8. health promotion when the 'vaccine' does not work.

    The epidemics of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have worsened over the past decades. During this time our preventive and therapeutic approach (the 'vaccine'), consisting of a low-fat diet and exercise, has remained fundamentally unchanged. A case is made that these conditions are inter-related and may be caused by a single underlying factor related to the carbohydrate content of diet. The validity of the present approach is challenged when those most knowledgeable in its application succumb to diseases it is meant to prevent. Others argue against the status quo that a low-carbohydrate diet may be more beneficial. A strong belief in the present approach discouraged research into low-carbohydrate diets until recently. Several studies have now demonstrated their benefits and are refuting old claims that they cause harm. Aboriginal people suffer more acutely from the epidemics in question and their dietary history suggests that a sudden increase in carbohydrates is to blame. Recent studies and a case history demonstrate that carbohydrate consumption can drive appetite and over-eating while carbohydrate restriction leads to weight loss and improvement in the markers for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The growing evidence in support of low-carbohydrate diets will encounter resistance from economic interests threatened by changes in consumption patterns.
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5/8. A case of choreoacanthocytosis with marked weight loss: impact of orolingual dyskinesia.

    Choreoacanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive onset of hyperkinetic movements and red cell acanthocytosis. The most striking clinical feature is that of the orofacial and lingual movement abnormalities leading to severe feeding difficulties. maintenance of proper nutrition in ChAc is a challenge. We report on a case of ChAc in a 32-year-old male in whom dramatic weight loss due to orolingual dyskinesia was the major consequence of the disease. This case report warrants more attention to the impact of orolingual dyskinesia on nutritional status in patients with ChAc.
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keywords = nutritional status, status
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6/8. A head-injured patient: caloric needs, clinical progress and nursing care priorities.

    This case study explored literature on nursing care of the head-injured patient and identified outcomes of a head-injured patient in regard to nutritional status, skin breakdown and infection. literature review revealed head-injured patients experience a hypermetabolism requiring increased nutritional support. Patient outcomes included mild skin breakdown, infection and a 12% loss in body weight. Inadequate nutrition was the patient's most significant outcome. The patient maintained an average daily intake of 915 calories and averaged a total energy expenditure of 2337 calories, thus, demonstrating an average daily deficit of 1422 calories. Top nursing care priorities noted in the patient's chart were: alteration in cerebral tissue perfusion, potential for injury and alteration in skin integrity. Results indicated more accurate assessment of the patient's needs and inclusion of more applicable nursing diagnoses were required to ensure greater continuity in care.
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7/8. fetal growth retardation after gastric banding.

    A 35-year-old woman became pregnant 15 months after gastric banding, during which time she lost 55 kg in weight. During the third trimester, severe vomiting was noted and she lost a further 6 kg. Ultrasound examination showed oligohydramnions and fetal growth retardation of 38%. enteral nutrition was given until delivery and ultrasound verified normalization of the oligohydramnions and weight gain for the fetus. The woman was delivered by cesarean section of a female infant with birthweight 2,470 g. It is concluded that special care must be taken with regard to the nutritional status of pregnant women who have previously been operated on with gastric procedures for obesity, in order to diminish the risk of fetal growth retardation. Ultrasound examinations should be performed on wide indications and enteral nutrition must start immediately once fetal growth retardation is discovered.
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8/8. Morbidly obese patients with pulmonary disease--a retrospective study of four cases: a brief report.

    Morbid obesity is a common chronic condition that predisposes affected individuals to a decrease in functional status. The purpose of this case series is to highlight the benefit of institutional rehabilitation for this subgroup of patients. A 6-mo retrospective review of 117 consecutive admissions to the rehabilitation unit of a municipal hospital center was conducted. A total of four patients (3.4%) met the criteria for morbid obesity. We present the brief case histories of these four subjects. All showed significant functional improvement and were able to return home after a mean length of stay of 61 days. They each required specialized rehabilitation intervention and specialized equipment such as extra large beds and oversize walkers. All four subjects had obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for their initial hospital admission. This study demonstrates that inpatient rehabilitation improves functional status in morbidly obese patients. Further research regarding physiatric intervention in the morbidly obese patient is needed.
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