Cases reported "Wernicke Encephalopathy"

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1/23. Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with hemodialysis: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Two rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients on hemodialysis (HD) are reported. They presented with the clinical triad of WE (ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness) and intravenous administration of thiamine led to complete elimination of these manifestations. Reduced plasma thiamine levels prior to the administration confirmed the diagnosis of WE. Interestingly, a reduction in plasma thiamine levels by about half was seen in one of the patients on HD, suggesting that thiamine, a water-soluble vitamin, can be depleted with HD. In the literature, nine HD-dependent patients have been reported to develop WE, seven of whom were diagnosed postmortem. Their premortem diagnoses included uremic encephalopathy, dysequilibrium syndrome and dialysis dementia, which can often complicate HD and present symptoms similar to those of WE. We therefore emphasize that WE, even though a rare complication, should be suspected in all patients on HD who present with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.
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2/23. Gestational thyrotoxicosis with acute wernicke encephalopathy: a case report.

    A 35-year-old hyperthyroid woman who developed nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, nystagmus and mental disturbance, was referred to our hospital with a suspected diagnosis of thyroid storm. However, the thyroid gland was only slightly palpable, bruits were not audible, and exophthalmos was not present. serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased, but TSH receptor antibodies were negative. Echography and color flow doppler ultrasonography revealed a slightly enlarged thyroid gland and a slightly increased blood flow, both of which were much less milder than those expected for severe hyperthyroid Graves' disease. Under the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to gestational thyrotoxicosis associated with wernicke encephalopathy, vitamin B1 was administered on the first day of admission. Her consciousness became nearly normal on the second day except for slight amnesia. Her right abducent nerve palsy rapidly improved, but horizontal and vertical nystagmus, diminished deep tendon reflexes and gait ataxia improved only gradually. MRI findings of the brain were compatible with acute wernicke encephalopathy. We concluded that history taking and physical findings are important to make a differential diagnosis of gestational thyrotoxicosis with acute wernicke encephalopathy from Graves' thyroid storm, and that wernicke encephalopathy should be treated as soon as possible to improve the prognosis.
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3/23. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings and postulate the pathogenic mechanism of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). PATIENT: A 47-year-old-woman presented with altered consciousness, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia. DWI revealed the abnormal signal changes in periaqueductal gray matter, mamillary bodies and bilateral medial thalami. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map revealed the high signal intensity lesions in bilateral medial thalami, suggestive of vasogenic edema. The abnormal signal intensity lesions disappeared on follow-up imaging with clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Vasogenic edema plays an important role in the pathogenesis of WE and can be reversed by proper management. DWI findings in the early stage of WE may provide useful information about the prognosis.
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4/23. Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy following bariatric surgery: clinical course and MRI correlation.

    postoperative complications and nutritional deficits resulting from bariatric surgery can lead to severe vitamin-deficiency states, such as Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). patients with acute WE generally present with the classic clinical triad of inattentiveness, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. We describe a patient who presented with acute WE at 2 months after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Initial MRI of the brain demonstrated the characteristic injuries of WE, and repeat imaging showed resolution after 4 months of thiamine supplementation, at which time the patient had normal gait but persistent memory deficits. Even with early recognition and aggressive therapy, acute WE commonly results in permanent disability due to the irreversible cytotoxic effects on specific regions of the brain. Since the clinical onset of acute WE follows a predictable time-course in post-bariatric surgery patients with malnutrition, we recommend prevention by administration of parenteral thiamine beginning at 6 weeks postoperatively in malnourished patients.
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5/23. Transition from upbeat to downbeat nystagmus observed in a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    BACKGROUND: We report an unusual case of Wernicke's encephalopathy presenting with transient upbeat nystagmus that changed to a persistent downbeat nystagmus. CASE: A 27-year-old man presented with upbeat nystagmus. Three months earlier, he had been diagnosed with Wernicke's encephalopathy after fasting for a month. OBSERVATIONS: This diagnosis was supported by his symptoms (ataxia, a confused state). Clinical recovery followed thiamine therapy. His upbeat nystagmus had linear slow phases with average amplitude and frequency ( /-SD) during fixation straight ahead of 2.8 /- 0.7 degrees and 4.6 /- 2.2 Hz, respectively. Two months later, the primary position upbeat nystagmus had diminished and downbeat nystagmus (0.9 /- 0.5 degrees and 3.2 /- 0.7 Hz on average) for a 20 degrees downward gaze had developed. Then, 8 months later, he showed only downbeat nystagmus, which obeyed Alexander's law. His primary position downbeat nystagmus was completely suppressed by clonazepam, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to an underlying central vestibular imbalance, even after the recovery of acute neurological symptoms, Wernicke's encephalopathy can be complicated by persistent downbeat nystagmus, which can be treated by a GABA agonist.
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6/23. MR imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging in acute and chronic wernicke encephalopathy.

    wernicke encephalopathy is a neurologic disorder that results from thiamine deficiency. It is associated with a classic triad of symptoms consisting of ataxia, ocular motor cranial neuropathies, and changes in consciousness. We report 3 cases of wernicke encephalopathy in which MR imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging, was performed at the onset and during follow-up. MR imaging findings were correlated with the clinical status of both the acute and chronic stage of wernicke encephalopathy.
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7/23. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a malnourished surgical patient: clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging.

    We report a clinical and neuroradiological description of a severe case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a surgical patient. After colonic surgery for neoplasm, he was treated for a long time with high glucose concentration total parenteral nutrition. In the early post-operative period, the patient showed severe encephalopathy with ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and consciousness disorders. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the clinical suspicion of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The radiological feature showed hyperintense lesions which were symmetrically distributed along the bulbo-pontine tegmentum, the tectum of the mid-brain, the periacqueductal grey substance, the hypothalamus and the medial periventricular parts of the thalamus. This progressed to typical Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome with ataxia and memory and cognitive defects. thiamine deficiency is a re-emerging problem in non-alcoholic patients and it may develop in surgical patients with risk factors such as malnutrition, prolonged vomiting and long-term high glucose concentration parenteral nutrition.
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8/23. hyperemesis gravidarum complicated by wernicke encephalopathy: background, case report, and review of the literature.

    wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a rare but known complication of severe hyperemesis gravidarum caused by thiamine deficiency. This article presents an unusual case that occurred at our institution and reviews the 48 previously published cases of WE in pregnancy. Considering all the 49 cases, the mean ( /-standard deviation) patients' age was 26.7 /- 4.9 years, the mean gestational age when WE manifested was 14.3 /- 3.4 weeks, and the mean duration of vomiting and feeding difficulties was 7.7 /- 2.8 weeks. Wernicke's classic triad (confusion, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia) manifested in only 46.9% (23 of 49) of the patients. confusion affected 63.3% (31 of 49) of the patients, ocular signs 95.9% (47 of 49) and symptoms 57.1% (28 of 49), and ataxia 81.6% (40 of 49). Deterioration of consciousness affected 53.1% (26 of 49) of the subjects and memory impairment 61.2% (30 of 49). Complete remission of the disease occurred in only 14 of 49 cases. Symptom resolution required months and permanent impairments were common. The overall pregnancy loss rate, directly (spontaneous fetal loss) and indirectly (planned abortion) attributable to WE, was 47.9% (23 of 49). The diagnosis of WE is clinical and can be rapidly confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. We emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation to women with prolonged vomiting in pregnancy, especially before intravenous or parenteral nutrition. We also underline the necessity to promptly replace vitamin B1 when neurologic symptoms and/or signs develop in a patient with hyperemesis gravidarum.
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9/23. Very early onset of Wernicke's encephalopathy after gastric bypass.

    postoperative complications resulting from bariatric surgery can lead to severe vitamin-deficiency states, such as Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). We present a 29-year-old woman with BMI 41.7 with no history of alcoholism who developed acute WE after a gastric bypass for morbid obesity. After persistent vomiting for 2 weeks postoperatively, symptoms began with headache, vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, tingling and weakness in both upper and lower extremities, urinary incontinence, and memory loss to recent events. All investigations, including upper GI endoscopy, Gastrografin meal and even MRI, were normal. A dramatic improvement occurred in 24 hrs after starting 100 mg thiamine infusion daily. We recommend that patients undergoing bariatric surgery should be started on thiamine supplementation once oral intake begins, because this case showed that postoperative acute WE can develop before 6 weeks, unlike other reports.
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10/23. Severe thiamine deficiency resulted in Wernicke's encephalopathy in a chronic dialysis patient.

    A 64-year-old male patient with diabetic nephropathy had been treated with maintenance hemodialysis therapy for 4 years, and had developed disturbed consciousness. The disturbance was firstly noticed by a primary care doctor who recognized slow responses in conversation. Prior to developing this symptom, the patient had noticed a loss of appetite for about 2 weeks. During a period of observation at an outpatient clinic, the symptoms became worse. He was admitted to a primary care hospital for 10 days, but his consciousness level deteriorated and he became unconscious (JCS 200). About 1 month after the onset of symptoms, the patient was transferred to our hospital. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical abnormal lesions in the aquaduct of the midbrain and thalamus, and a diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was made. In addition, the patient's serum thiamine level was extremely low (7 ng/ml). He received immediate treatment with intravenous thiamine administration (150 mg/day), and this significantly improved his symptoms (JCS 2). dialysis patients may develop water-soluble vitamin deficiency as a result of the combination of reduced oral intake and increased loss of vitamins into the dialysate. Wernicke's encephalopathy should be considered as one of many causes of disturbed consciousness in hemodialysis patients. A rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential in order to minimize long-term neurological sequelae.
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