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1/96. ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads induced with class IC antiarrhythmic drugs: insight into the mechanism of brugada syndrome.

    We evaluated two patients without previous episodes of syncope who showed characteristic ECG changes similar to brugada syndrome following administration of Class IC drugs, flecainide and pilsicainide, but not following Class IA drugs. Patient 1 had frequent episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation resistant to Class IA drugs. After treatment with flecainide, the ECG showed a marked ST elevation in leads V2 and V3, and the coved-type configuration of ST segment in lead V2. A signal-averaged ECG showed late potentials that became more prominent after flecainide. Pilsicainide, a Class IC drug, induced the same ST segment elevation as flecainide, but procainamide did not. Patient 2 also had frequent episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Pilsicainide changed atrial fibrillation to atrial flutter with 2:1 ventricular response, and the ECG showed right bundle branch block and a marked coved-type ST elevation in leads V1 and V2. After termination of atrial flutter, ST segment elevation in leads V1 and V2 continued. In this patient, procainamide and quinidine did not induce this type of ECG change. In conclusion, strong Na channel blocking drugs induce ST segment elevation similar to brugada syndrome even in patients without any history of syncope or ventricular fibrillation.
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2/96. Radiofrequency ablation of a concealed nodoventricular Mahaim fiber guided by a discrete potential.

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 17-year-old woman who underwent an electrophysiological study and radiofrequency (RF) ablation of supraventricular tachycardia refractory to medical treatment. Two right-sided, concealed, nondecremental atrioventricular accessory pathways (AV-APs) involved in orthodromic circus movement tachycardias were identified. After RF ablation of both AV-APs, evidence of bidirectional dual AV nodal conduction was demonstrated and regular narrow complex tachycardia was induced. methods AND RESULTS: During the tachycardia, retrograde slow and fast AV nodal pathway conduction with second-degree ventriculoatrial (VA) block and VA dissociation were observed. During the tachycardia with second-degree VA block, ventricular extrastimuli elicited during His-bundle refractoriness advanced the next His potential or terminated the tachycardia. Mapping the right atrial mid-septal region, a distinct high-frequency activation P potential was recorded in a discrete area, two thirds of the way from the His bundle toward the os of the coronary sinus. Detailed electrophysiologic testing with the recordable P potential demonstrated that the tachycardia utilized a concealed nodoventricular AP arising from the proximal slow AV nodal pathway. CONCLUSION: The tachycardia with slow 1:1 VA conduction could be reset by ventricular extrastimuli elicited during His-bundle refractoriness advancing the subsequent activation P potential and atrial activation. RF ablation guided by recording of the activation P potential resulted in elimination of both the slow AV nodal pathway and the nodoventricular connection with preservation of the normal AV conduction system.
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3/96. Electrophysiologic characteristics of accessory atrioventricular connections in an inherited form of wolff-parkinson-white syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: A familial form of wolff-parkinson-white syndrome (WPW) occurs in association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and intraventricular conduction abnormalities. This syndrome, demonstrating autosomal dominant inheritance and segregating with a high degree of penetrance but variable expressivity, has been genetically linked to chromosome 7q3. The purpose of this study is to detail the electrophysiologic characteristics of accessory atrioventricular connections (AC) in four members of a kindred with this syndrome. methods AND RESULTS: We clinically evaluated 32 members of a single kindred and identified 20 individuals with ventricular preexcitation, abnormal intraventricular conduction including complete AV block and/or ventricular hypertrophy. genetic linkage analysis mapped the disease gene in this kindred to the chromosome 7q3 locus (maximum logarithm of the odds score = 6.88, theta = 0); recombination events in affected individuals reduced the genetic interval from 7 centimorgans (cM) to 5 cM. Electrophysiologic study of four individuals with preexcitation, identified seven AC (1 right sided, 3 septal, and 3 left sided). All four individuals had inducible orthodromic tachycardia; while three had multiple AC. Bidirectional conduction was demonstrated in 6 of 7 AC. Successful ablation was accomplished in 5 of 7 AC. CONCLUSION: The electrophysiologic characteristics and location of AC in family members having this complex cardiac phenotype are similar to those seen in individuals with isolated WPW. Identification of WPW in more than one family member should prompt clinical evaluation of relatives for additional findings of ventricular hypertrophy or conduction abnormalities.
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4/96. Coexisting preexcitation syndrome and intermittent heart block presenting as neonatal seizures.

    An infant presented with neonatal syncope and seizures. An ECG showed a preexcitation pattern, most compatible with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Rhythm monitoring during an event demonstrated prolonged periods of complete AV block with no ventricular escape mechanism. We postulated that ventricular asystole was initiated by mechanical or autonomic influences on the accessory pathway and sustained by electrophysiologic interactions between the accessory pathway and the junctional escape focus. This is the first case report of a newborn having coexisting congenital AV block and WPW syndrome.
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5/96. Unusual induction of slow-fast atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Report of two cases.

    INTRODUCTION: Generally, the induction of typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) occurs with a premature atrial stimulus that blocks in the fast pathway and proceeds down the slow pathway slowly enough to allow the refractory fast pathway time to recover. We describe two cases in which a typical AVNRT was induced in an unusual fashion. RESULTS: The first case is a 41-year-old man with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. During the electrophysiology study, the atrial extrastimulus inducing the typical AVNRT was conducted simultaneously over the fast (AH) and the slow pathway (AH'). A successful ablation of the slow pathway was performed. During the follow-up no recurrence was noted. The second case is a 52-year-old woman with a wolff-parkinson-white syndrome due to a left posterior accessory pathway. After 5 minutes of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) induced by a ventricular extrastimulus, a variability of the antegrade conduction was noted in presence of the same VA conduction. In fact, a short AH interval (fast pathway) alternated with a more prolonged AH intervals (slow pathway) that progressively lengthened until a typical AVNRT was induced. The ablation of the accessory pathway eliminated both tachycardias. DISCUSSION: A rare manifestation of dual atrioventricular nodal pathways is a double ventricular response to an atrial impulse that may cause a tachycardia with an atrioventricular conduction of 1:2. In our first case, an atrial extrastimulus was simultaneously conducted over the fast and the slow pathway inducing an AVNRT. This nodal reentry implies two different mechanisms: 1) a retrograde block on the slow pathway impeding the activation of the slow pathway from the impulse coming down the fast pathway, and 2) a critical slowing of conduction in the slow pathway to allow the recovery of excitability of the fast pathway. Interestingly, in the second case, during an AVRT the atrial impulse suddenly proceeded alternately over the fast and the slow pathway. The progressive slowing of conduction over the slow pathway until a certain point which allows the recovery of excitability of the fast pathway determines the AVNRT. This is a case of "tachycardia-induced tachycardia" as confirmed by the fact that the ablation of the accessory pathway eliminated both tachycardias.
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6/96. Development of rapid atrial fibrillation with a wide QRS complex after neostigmine in a patient with intermittent wolff-parkinson-white syndrome.

    We report the case of a 67-yr-old man with intermittent Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in whom neostigmine produced life-threatening tachyarrhythmias. The patient was scheduled for microsurgery for a laryngeal tumour. When he arrived in the operating room, the electrocardiogram showed normal sinus rhythm with a rate of 82 beat min-1 and a narrow QRS complex which remained normal throughout the operative period. On emergence from anaesthesia, the sinus rhythm (87 beat min-1) changed to atrial fibrillation with a rate of 80-120 beat min-1 and a normal QRS complex. We did not treat the atrial fibrillation because the patient was haemodynamically stable. neostigmine 1 mg without atropine was then administered to antagonize residual neuromuscular block produced by vecuronium. Two minutes later, the narrow QRS complexes changed to a wide QRS complex tachycardia with a rate of 110-180 beat min-1, which was diagnosed as rapid atrial fibrillation. As the patient was hypotensive, two synchronized DC cardioversions of 100 J and 200 J were given, which restored sinus rhythm. No electrophysiological studies of anticholinesterase drugs have been performed in patients with WPW syndrome. We discuss the use of these drugs in this condition.
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7/96. Late onset of accessory pathway conduction in a patient with complete AV block.

    This case report discusses a patient with complete AV block in early childhood. The patient required a permanent pacemaker. At 6 years of age, intermittent preexcited beats were noted on telephonic transmissions. At 7 years of age, 1:1 preexcitation was noted in sinus rhythm. Therefore, late onset of antegrade accessory pathway function is demonstrated. This case provides evidence of developmental changes in accessory pathways. This may explain age related differences in the onset of narrow complex tachycardia in the school age years.
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8/96. Demonstration of phase-3 and phase-4 retrograde block in a second concealed accessory pathway after an initial successful radiofrequency ablation of a 'normal' concealed accessory pathway.

    We report a patient with concealed wolff-parkinson-white syndrome who, following catheter ablation, demonstrated phase-3 and phase-4 retrograde block in a concealed accessory pathway. After an initial 'apparently successful' ablation, retrograde conduction was through the atrioventricular node during constant ventricular pacing. Ventricular extrastimulus testing was performed at a basic drive cycle length of 600 ms. Unexpectedly, ventricular extrastimuli at coupling intervals of 440-380 ms were conducted retrogradely over an accessory pathway, consistent with a phase-3 and phase-4 retrograde block in the accessory pathway. Residual accessory pathway conduction was eliminated in a single ablation session.
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9/96. Transient complete atrioventricular block during catheter ablation of left free wall bypass tract.

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory bypass tracts associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome has become an accepted and widespread therapy. When bypass tracts are located in the free wall of the left ventricle, complete atrioventricular (AV) block is an unusual complication. Two cases of symptomatic WPW syndrome with transient complete atrioventricular block during catheter ablation are described. The first case was a 14-year-old female with an accessory pathway located in the left posterior wall, and the second was a 72-year-old female with an accessory pathway located in the left lateral wall. Radiofrequency energy application resulted in transient complete AV block with escape rhythm. In the first case, AV conduction with left bundle branch block resumed the next day, whereas in the second case, AV conduction soon resumed with prolongation of atrio-His (AH) interval and no evidence of pre-excitation. This phenomenon could have been due to either trauma to the AV node during catheter entry into the left ventricle or compression of the AV node with a catheter shaft during ablation because both patients' hearts were comparatively small.
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10/96. Atrial double potentials associated with the elimination of the electrical connection between the coronary sinus (CS) and the left atrium in two cases of wolff-parkinson-white syndrome with a CS-connected accessory pathway.

    A curious retrograde conduction in connection with the coronary sinus (CS) musculature was observed in 2 patients. After the failed ablation procedure, the atrial electrogram during ventricular pacing presented double potentials, the first component of which was sharp and with an activation sequence that was the same before ablation (CS distal to proximal). The second component of the double potentials was dull and had a decremental property; its activation sequence was in reverse (proximal to distal). In both cases, the first component disappeared after successful ablation. These findings suggest that the first component was the CS electrogram conducted over the accessory pathway and the second component was the left atrial electrogram conducted through the inter-atrial septum. The separation of each electrogram is probably the result of a block between the accessory pathway connected to the CS musculature and the left atrium. These are unusual cases of an accessory pathway connected to the CS musculature, which separates the left atrial myocardium at the distal portion from the ostium.
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