Cases reported "Wounds, Gunshot"

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1/65. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a warfare facial trauma.

    This case report presents the prosthetic treatment of a warfare facial trauma patient with the aim of providing satisfactory function, esthetics, and alleviation of deformities. Veneer crowns with rests, root coping, and metal-base partial prostheses were used for the patient therapy and treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = metal
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2/65. Retained intracranial metallic foreign bodies. Report of two cases.

    The authors discuss two examples of extensive migration of retained metallic foreign bodies. The potential for further neurological injury from migration, formation of neurotoxic breakdown products, and the danger of infection are factors to be assessed when considering the removal of retained intracranial metallic foreign bodies.
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ranking = 6
keywords = metal
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3/65. Late arthroscopic debridement of metal fragments and synovectomy after penetrating knee joint injury by low-velocity missile: a report of two cases.

    Retained metal debris from intraarticular missile injury to the knee may produce mechanical symptoms and synovitis. Arthroscopic debridement and thorough synovectomy can relieve symptoms and allow early return of function.
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ranking = 5
keywords = metal
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4/65. diabetes insipidus secondary to penetrating spinal cord trauma: case report and literature review.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) that developed after a gunshot injury to the thorax and thoracic spinal cord and to discuss the disease process in light of the relevant literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) abnormalities may develop after spinal trauma and/or surgery. Although there are published reports of inappropriate adh syndrome arising in this clinical picture, CDI is rare. methods: A 33-year-old woman with hemopneumothorax and a gunshot wound to her thoracic spine was treated with chest tube drainage. No surgery was performed for the spinal injury. The patient was paraplegic on admission and rapidly developed excessive urine output. Testing revealed that her serum ADH level was low, consistent with CDI. Desmopressin acetate nasal spray was the prescribed treatment. RESULTS: The patient responded well to the desmopressin acetate spray. CONCLUSIONS: CDI is a complicated hormonal disorder characterized by excessive urine output. It is typically linked to an abnormality in the hypothalamohypophyseal axis that markedly reduces ADH production. The most common inciting causes are craniocerebral trauma, brain tumor and/or surgery, and central nervous system infection. Although uncommon, CDI should be considered when a spinal trauma patient develops excessive urine output.
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ranking = 0.085709848000404
keywords = nervous system
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5/65. air-gun pellet injuries to the head and neck in children.

    air-gun pellet injuries to the head and neck are seldom reported in pediatric practice, although they typically occur in children. The adult skeleton stops these projectiles, but they can easily transverse the thin bones of children. If unnoticed, these apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences. We report three children who sustained a central nervous system injury resulting from a shot by a compressed-air gun. The true nature and extent of the lesion in two infants was established only by neuroradiological investigations. We also briefly review the management and prevention of this type of injury.
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ranking = 0.085709848000404
keywords = nervous system
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6/65. Elemental analysis of bone: proton-induced X-ray emission testing in forensic cases.

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a spectroscopic technique that provides the researcher with the elemental composition of a given target material. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of PIXE analysis in two forensic contexts: (1) case of cremation in which the nature of the remains is questioned and (2) cases of death by gunshot wound. In the first case, elemental analysis by PIXE reveals that the purported cremated remains are not bone. The last two cases show that radiopaque metallic residue embedded in bone is composed of lead from a projectile.
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ranking = 1
keywords = metal
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7/65. movement disorders induced by peripheral trauma.

    movement disorders induced by central nervous system trauma are well recognized. However, over the last few years, attention has been drawn to the role of peripherally induced movement disorders. We describe three patients presenting respectively dystonia, tremor and choreoathetosis associated with tremor and dystonia of the body parts previously exposed to traumatic injuries. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not entirely known, but functional changes in afferent neuronal input to the spinal cord and secondary affection of higher brain stem and subcortical centers are probably involved.
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ranking = 0.085709848000404
keywords = nervous system
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8/65. Nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma. Report of neurosurgical cases with a review of mechanisms and treatment.

    Seventy-eight critically ill patients who died while on the neurosurgical service were studied retrospectively to establish the prevalence of nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma (NHHC). All the patients had been comatose before death, and all underwent necropsy. Criteria for the diagnosis of NHHC included moderate-to-severe hyperglycemia with glucosuria, absence of significant acetonuria, hyperosmolarity with dehydration, and neurological dysfunction. This study revealed seven cases of unequivocal NHHC (9%), and six of hyperosmolarity but with incomplete records. Five of the seven confirmed cases of NHHC demonstrated no evidence of cerebral edema transtentorial herniation, or brain-stem damage, and showed central nervous system (CNS) lesions compatible with survival. Fatal complications of this syndrome, such as acute renal failure, terminal arrhythmias, and vascular accidents, both cerebral and systemic, were common in this series. The mechanism of coma in NHHC is believed related to shifts of free water from the cerebral extravascular space to the hypertonic intravascular space, with subsequent intracellular dehydration, accumulation of metabolic products of glucose, and brain shrinkage. It is uncertain whether injury to specific areas in the CNS is a predisposing factor to the development of NHHC. Factors documented to be significant in its development include nonspecific stress to primary illnesses, hyperosmolar tube feedings, dehydration, diabetes and mannitol, Dilantin, or steroid administration.
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ranking = 0.085709848000404
keywords = nervous system
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9/65. Late bullet migration into the knee joint.

    A 25-year-old active-duty police officer was found to have an intra-articular foreign body on radiographic study of his left knee joint. He had a gunshot wound to the midthigh 54 months prior to the presentation of symptoms. The bullet was lodged in the soft tissue without involving neurovascular structures. The patient complained of limited range of motion of the joint and a "rattle" sensation of the knee. Arthroscopically, a deformed metallic foreign body was found and retrieved. There was no injury inside the joint related to the loose body. These findings were consistent with a migrating bullet from the midthigh to the knee joint. The patient recovered uneventfully and returned to work.
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ranking = 1
keywords = metal
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10/65. Elevated blood lead resulting from maxillofacial gunshot injuries with lead ingestion.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of ingested lead particles to elevated blood lead concentrations in victims of gunshot injury to the maxillofacial region. patients AND methods: As part of a larger study of the effects of retained lead bullets on blood lead, a retrospective review of study findings was completed on 5 of 8 patients who sustained injuries to the maxillofacial region. These 5 patients were recruited into the larger study within 11 days of injury and showed a penetration path for the projectile that engaged the upper aerodigestive tract. All subjects were recruited from patients presenting for care of their gunshot injuries to a large inner-city trauma center with a retained bullet resulting from a gunshot injury. An initial blood lead level was measured for all recruited patients and repeated 1 to 17 weeks later. Medical history was taken along with a screening and risk factor questionnaire to determine other potential or actual sources (occupational/recreational) of lead exposure. (109)Cd K-shell x-ray fluorescence determinations of bone lead were completed to determine past lead exposure not revealed by medical history and risk factor questionnaire. Radiographs taken of the abdomen and chest, required as a part of the patient's hospital care, were retrospectively reviewed for signs of metallic fragments along the aerodigestive tract. RESULTS: All 5 patients retained multiple lead pellets or fragments at the site of injury, sustained fractures of the facial bones, and showed increases in blood lead. Three of the 5 study subjects who sustained maxillofacial gunshot injuries involving the mouth, nose, or throat region showed metallic densities along the gastrointestinal tract indicative of ingested bullet fragments. Each patient with ingested bullet fragments showed rapid elevation of blood lead exceeding 25 microg/dL and sustained increases well beyond the time when all ingested fragments were eliminated. A 3-year follow-up on these 3 patients showed significantly sustained elevation of blood lead but less than that observed during the initial 6 months after injury. None of the 5 study subjects showed any evidence of metallic foreign bodies within the tracheobronchial regions indicative of aspiration. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of lead fragments can result from gunshot injuries to the maxillofacial region and may substantially contribute to a rapid increase in blood lead level. Prompt diagnosis and elimination of ingested lead fragments are essential steps necessary to prevent lead being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Increased blood lead in victims after gunshot injuries must be fully evaluated for all potential sources, including recent environmental exposure, absorption of lead from any remaining bullets in body tissues, and the possibility of mobilization of lead from long-term body stores such as bone.
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ranking = 3
keywords = metal
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