Cases reported "Wounds, Gunshot"

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1/149. Z-plasty closure of the donor defect of the radial forearm free flap.

    The radial forearm is a popular free flap site for reconstruction of head and neck defects, because of its abundant, pliable, skin component and an available, extended, vascular pedicle. In addition, vascularized composite flaps, including a segment of radius, can be designed for skeletal stabilization. The donor-site defect can involve various complications, including loss of skin graft, unsatisfactory appearance, numbness, and radial fracture. Recent advances in reducing donor-site defect problems have included the use of rotation skin flaps, local muscle rotation, and soft-tissue expansion; however, each of these has its own limitations. Two cases are presented in which radial forearm donor site defects, measuring less than 4 cm x6 cm, were primarily closed successfully with z-plasties based on the longitudinal skin incision. Each patient has regained preoperative mobility, and prompt primary healing was achieved without complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/149. Neurotologic evaluation of facial nerve paralysis caused by gunshot wounds.

    facial nerve injury is one of the most common neurotologic sequelae of a gunshot wound (GSW) to the head or neck. However, few neurotologic studies have been performed on the nature and time course of such facial nerve impairments. This study was designed to characterize the neurotologic manifestations and time course of facial nerve paralysis caused by GSWs to the head and neck. We conducted a battery of electrodiagnostic tests on 10 patients who had experienced traumatic facial paralysis due to a GSW to the head or neck. The etiologies of facial nerve paralysis--including direct injury, compression, fracture, and concussion of the temporal bone--were demonstrated by audiologic, radiologic, and surgical findings. hearing loss and other cranial nerve injuries were also seen. Six of the 10 patients experienced a complete paralysis of the facial nerve and a poor recovery of its function. We also present a comprehensive case report on 1 patient as a means of discussing the evaluation of facial nerve function during the course of management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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3/149. Fourteen shots for a suicide.

    A 56-year-old man is discovered unconscious in a pool of blood in the kitchen of his house. According to findings, the man used a 22 long Rifle to fire 14 shots at his thorax with trajectories going from front to back, from right to left and on a nearly horizontal level. All the projectiles got into the left front side of his thorax and came out just under the back of his left armpit. One of them then got through his left arm and fractured his left humerus. According to the findings made on the premises and the position of the bloodstains, we think that man put his rifle against the wall, resting on a pipe. He fired, unloading two clips into his thorax. He had to handle the bolt of the rifle before each shot. To reload, he took the bullets which were on the nearby table on which blood marks can be seen. When reloading at a certain moment, he sat down in his armchair and when he wanted to stand up, he leaned on the armrests, on which blood marks can be seen. The last bullet was probably the one which went through his left arm, preventing him from keeping on shooting. His death, caused by a hypovolemical shock, was obviously very slow.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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4/149. Serratus fascia "sandwich" free-tissue transfer for complex dorsal hand and wrist avulsion injuries.

    The serratus anterior fascia was used as a free-tissue transfer in four patients for the reconstruction of dorsal hand defects. All patients had multiple open metacarpal fractures with extensor tendon injuries. The fascia was used to "sandwich" the extensor tendons in a bed of areolar gliding tissue to avoid adhesions. The mean follow-up was 2 years. There were no complications and all flaps survived completely. All flaps were grafted with meshed split-thickness skin at the time of transfer with a 100 percent take in all cases. A good functional result was noted in all patients. This free-tissue transfer is recommended for complex injuries to the dorsum of the hand associated with soft-tissue defects.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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5/149. Management of a gunshot wound to the face resulting in a mandibular body fracture with burying of a bicuspid crown into the tongue.

    Gunshot wounds to the maxillofacial region are unpredictable and run the gamut from minor injuries to severe mutilating and life threatening injuries. This patient although unfortunate to have been the victim of mistaken identify resulting in the gunshot wound, was fortunate that the bullet hit his bicuspid, which probably served to deflect its path away from vital structures, thus saving his life. This accounts for the buried bicuspid crown found in the midline of the body of the tongue. Rigid internal fixation of maxillofacial fractures minimizes risks to the airway that may occur if patients are in post-operative maxillo-mandibular fixation during the post-anesthetic recovery phase. In addition, the use of rigid internal fixation speeds up the recovery and the patient's ability to return to function after surgery. Above, we presented an interesting case of a mandibular anterior body fracture resulting from a gunshot wound in the face and resulting in the burying of a bicuspid crown in the substance of the tongue, treated under general nasoendotracheal anesthesia and the use of rigid internal fixation (EDCP).
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ranking = 6
keywords = fracture
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6/149. Unstable cervical spine without spinal cord injury in penetrating neck trauma.

    Cervical spine instability in the neurologically intact patient following penetrating neck trauma has been considered rare or non-existent. We present a case of a woman with an unstable C5 fracture without spinal cord injury after a gunshot wound to the neck. Considerations regarding the risk of cervical spine instability are discussed, as well as suggestions for a prudent approach to such patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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7/149. Cruciate paralysis, hypothesis for injury and recovery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report and review of the literature. OBJECTIVES: Discuss a case of cruciate paralysis, a review of the literature and the hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis and recovery in spinal cord injuries that cause disproportionate weakness of the upper extremities. SETTING: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, philadelphia, PA, USA. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A case of cruciate paralysis is presented involving a 59-year-old female who experienced a gunshot wound to the face. Initial motor exams revealed mild lower limb weakness and absent upper limb function with an upper limb modified American Spinal Injury association motor score of 0/50 (a modified impairment scale using half point muscle grades). Spinal imaging revealed fractures of the C1 anterior ring and the odontoid process, both associated with multiple bullet fragments. No spinal surgery was performed and she was placed in halo fixation. By 3 weeks she had regained enough upper limb function to manipulate large objects with her left hand and move her right hand. At that time, her upper limb asia score was 16/50. By 5 weeks, her upper limb modified asia motor score had improved to 31.5/50 and she began manipulating feeding utensils, writing legibly, and brushing her teeth with her left hand. CONCLUSIONS: In this case report we present a patient's motor and functional recovery. We also discuss the hypothesis that the acute central cord syndrome and cruciate paralysis are a likely result of similar pathologic mechanisms and that good functional outcome resulted from an initially disabling trauma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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8/149. Keyhole defect production in tubular bone.

    Fracture characteristics, reported primarily for the cranium, are valuable indicators of bullet direction. A bullet striking the vault tangentially produces an irregular opening, termed a "keyhole defect." with the circular portion of the defect being the initial point of impact. Identifying this feature in tubular bone (long bone) can also demonstrate bullet direction and the position of the bone at the time of the shooting. This case study involving a tangential shot (i.e., a keyhole fracture) to the humerus demonstrates some of the same fracture mechanics seen in the cranium.
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ranking = 2
keywords = fracture
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9/149. Using the Ilizarov external fixation device for skin expansion.

    Addressing war injuries requires tailoring treatment that provides the best functional and aesthetic results within a reasonable period of time. The authors report a young soldier who sustained a gunshot injury that caused an open fracture of the proximal tibia and patella (Gustilo type B-III). A local muscle flap could not be used, and thus the authors decided to use the already applied Ilizarov device for gradual expansion of the wound edge. The expanded skin covered the exposed fracture successfully, and later enabled solid union of the fracture. This reconstructive method seems to be an original solution for the management of open fractures, and additional proof that well-vascularized skin may be equivalent to a muscle flap, and may be considered for selected patients.
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ranking = 4
keywords = fracture
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10/149. limb salvage of lower-extremity wounds using free gracilis muscle reconstruction.

    An extensive series reviewing the benefits and drawbacks of use of the gracilis muscle in lower-extremity trauma has not previously been collected. In this series of 50 patients, the use of microvascular free transfer of the gracilis muscle for lower-extremity salvage in acute traumatic wounds and posttraumatic chronic wounds is reviewed. In addition, the wound size, injury patterns, problems, and results unique to the use of the gracilis as a donor muscle for lower-extremity reconstruction are identified. In a 7-year period from 1991 to 1998, 50 patients underwent lower-extremity reconstruction using microvascular free gracilis transfer at the University of maryland shock Trauma Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. There were 22 patients who underwent reconstruction for coverage of acute lower-extremity traumatic soft-tissue defects associated with open fractures. The majority of patients were victims of high-energy injuries with 91 percent involving motor vehicle or motorcycle accidents, gunshot wounds, or pedestrians struck by vehicles. Ninety-one percent of the injuries were Gustilo type IIIb tibial fractures and 9 percent were Gustilo type IIIc. The mean soft-tissue defect size was 92.2 cm2. Successful limb salvage was achieved in 95 percent of patients. Twenty-eight patients with previous Gustilo type IIIb tibia-fibula fractures presented with posttraumatic chronic wounds characterized by osteomyelitis or deep soft-tissue infection. Successful free-tissue transfer was accomplished in 26 of 28 patients (93 percent). All but one of the patients in this group who underwent successful limb salvage (26 of 27, or 96 percent) are now free of infection. Use of the gracilis muscle as a free-tissue transfer has been shown to be a reliable and predictable tool in lower-extremity reconstruction, with a flap success and limb salvage rate comparable to those in other large studies.
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ranking = 3
keywords = fracture
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