Cases reported "Wounds, Nonpenetrating"

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1/62. Analysis of blunt trauma injuries: vertical deceleration versus horizontal deceleration injuries.

    There are several similarities found in blunt trauma injuries to humans sustained as a result of vertical deceleration (falling) and those sustained as a result of deceleration in a horizontal plane (automobile accidents). However, examination of the patterns of traumatic skeletal injuries can distinguish those injuries associated with falling from heights from those associated with automobile accidents. While there is considerable variation within each type of blunt trauma injury dependent on the angle at which one falls or is struck, there are several characteristic skeletal features associated with each type of trauma. In this study we review both the current literature and human skeletal remains from the University of new mexico's Documented Collection known to have been subjected to blunt trauma. This collection is used to characterize and differentiate the pattern of skeletal injuries to various parts of the body for each type of trauma. These assessments are applied to investigate the traumatic skeletal lesions observed in a forensic case where the manner of death is unknown. Analyses suggest two possible scenarios that would explain the death of the individual investigated, with death most likely related to a vehicular-pedestrian accident.
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keywords = deceleration
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2/62. Intrapericardial caval injury due to blunt trauma.

    BACKGROUND: Report of diagnosis and treatment of intrapericardial vena caval injury caused by blunt thoracic trauma, an unusual cause of cardiac tamponade. methods: A 43-year-old male motor vehicle accident victim suffered a lacerated intrapericardial inferior vena cava leading to cardiac tamponade. Positive clinical findings were hypotension and tachycardia without indication of external chest trauma. RESULTS: Abdominal computed tomography was negative, but ultrasound demonstrated cardiac tamponade and fluid in the abdomen. pericardiocentesis was performed, and nonclotted blood was aspirated. laparotomy showed intra-abdominal blood and splenic capsule avulsion. sternotomy revealed a laceration of the inferior vena cava, which was repaired. CONCLUSIONS: Signs of cardiac tamponade and a history of blunt thoracic trauma caused by deceleration injury suggests intrapericardial inferior vena cava injury. Median sternotomy is the optimal choice for caval repair.
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keywords = deceleration
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3/62. aortic rupture as a result of low velocity crush.

    A case of aortic disruption in a 35 year old lorry driver is described. This occurred as a result of a low velocity crushing force. Clinicians should be aware that this mechanism of injury may result in aortic disruption as well as the more commonly mentioned severe deceleration force.
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keywords = deceleration
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4/62. Blunt trauma-induced internal thoracic artery injury: case report.

    We report the case of a 54-year-old male motorcyclist with an apparent grade IV liver injury and life-threatening hemomediastinum and right hemothorax following blunt deceleration trauma. Massive hemothorax and an unstable hemodynamic status even under copious blood volume replacement made emergent surgical intervention mandatory. A midline laparotomy was performed at first to rule out abdominal bleeding accompanied by a diaphragmatic tear, but the procedure was soon converted to a thoracotomy after finding an intact diaphragm and persistent bleeding from the chest tube. An isolated internal thoracic artery (ITA) transection was identified. It was actively bleeding and causing a huge anterior mediastinal hematoma and had ruptured into the right pleural cavity. The bleeder was controlled with suture ligation and the hemodynamic status was soon stabilized. The patient recovered without significant sequelae. The rarity of this kind of presentation is discussed, including both the ITA injury mechanism and the problems posed in making an early and correct diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = deceleration
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5/62. Immediate endovascular repair for descending thoracic aortic transection secondary to blunt trauma.

    PURPOSE: To report the immediate endovascular treatment of a thoracic aortic tear secondary to blunt trauma. methods AND RESULTS: A 39-year-old man was injured in a motor vehicle collision. In addition to significant trauma to the head, chest, and abdomen, there were signs of a deceleration injury to the thoracic aorta. After urgent celiotomy to repair a lacerated spleen, the thoracic aortic transection was treated intraluminally using an endograft made of Gianturco Z-stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. The patient recovered from his injuries, and the thoracic endograft shows no evidence of endoleak 7 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Endoluminal techniques can be used successfully in the immediate repair of thoracic aortic injuries.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = deceleration
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6/62. Repair of traumatic aortic valve disruption and descending aortic transection.

    Traumatic aortic transection after acute deceleration injury remains a highly lethal condition. Concomitant aortic valve disruption is exceedingly rare, and can complicate the timing of surgical management. This report describes the management and outcome of a patient with these types of injuries.
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keywords = deceleration
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7/62. Repair of pulmonary vein rupture after deceleration injury.

    Injuries to the major pulmonary vessels are uncommon and are extremely difficult to manage. We report a case of an isolated pulmonary vein injury following a road traffic accident that was repaired successfully.
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keywords = deceleration
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8/62. Blunt injury of the abdomen: a plea for CT.

    A 3-year-old boy was brought to the emergency unit 1 h following a deceleration injury. On clinical examination there were no signs of injury and US showed only free intraperitoneal fluid. The following morning, contrast-enhanced CT showed the right kidney did not enhance and delayed scans showed contrast medium in the renal vein. This is an indirect sign of post-traumatic renal artery occlusion. Failure to recognise this sign may have disastrous consequences in a patient with solitary kidney or bilateral renal artery occlusion. Contrast-enhanced CT scan remains the most widely available investigation for accurate staging of blunt renal trauma.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = deceleration
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9/62. Blunt innominate artery injury.

    Traumatic injury to the innominate artery is a rare occurrence. A literature review reveals that penetrating wounds account for the overwhelming majority of these injuries. Fewer than 90 cases of innominate artery injury caused by blunt trauma have been documented. Over the past 12 months the trauma service successfully treated two patients with blunt injury to the innominate artery. Both cases involved high-speed motor vehicle crashes with sudden deceleration. Both patients were wearing lap and shoulder restraints and had similar associated bruising following the line of the shoulder harness. The first patient presented with a wide mediastinum on chest X-ray. angiography revealed an innominate artery injury at the aortic arch. The second patient had a normal chest X-ray. Given the extent of soft tissue bruising from the shoulder harness he underwent a magnetic resonance angiography, which was suspicious for an innominate artery injury. Arch aortography confirmed a disruption of the innominate artery midway between its origin and its bifurcation. Both were repaired through a median sternotomy with cervical extension as necessary. Given the present technology of safety restraint devices this injury may occur with greater frequency. A "shoulder strap sign" should prompt a search for more extensive injuries.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = deceleration
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10/62. Extrapericardial cardiac tamponade caused by traumatic retrosternal hematoma.

    cardiac tamponade is an uncommon complication of blunt chest trauma, resulting typically from hemorrhage into the pericardial space. We report a case of hemodynamic compromise secondary to an extrapericardial compression caused by the acute formation of a retrosternal hematoma associated with a sternal fracture. The patient was involved in a violent deceleration accident. Initially, he only complained of an anterior thoracic pain, but subsequently became restless, pale, and dyspneic. A severe hypotension associated with sinus bradycardia (45 bpm) rapidly occurred. Both jugular veins became markedly turgescent, but no significant pulsus paradoxus was noted. echocardiography disclosed a large hematoma, compressing anteriorly both the right ventricular cavity and outflow tract. Surgical evacuation of the retrosternal hematoma related to a bifocal fracture of the manubrium was followed by instantaneous hemodynamic improvement. Regional extrapericardial tamponade secondary to the acute formation of compressive retrosternal hematoma is an unusual cause of circulatory failure after severe blunt chest trauma. Since conventional clinical signs associated with typical tamponade physiology may be lacking in this setting, echocardiography is ideally suited for early recognition of this unusual condition.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = deceleration
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