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1/4. Sterol 27-hydroxylase acts on 7-ketocholesterol in human atherosclerotic lesions and macrophages in culture.

    27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH) is the major oxysterol in human atherosclerotic lesions, followed by 7-ketocholesterol (7K). Whereas 7K probably originates nonenzymically, 27OH arises by the action of sterol 27-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme expressed at particularly high levels in the macrophage and proposed to represent an important pathway by which macrophages eliminate excess cholesterol. We hypothesized and here show that 27-hydroxylated 7-ketocholesterol (270H-7K) is present in human lesions, probably generated by the action of sterol 27-hydroxylase on 7K. Moreover, [(3)H]27OH-7K was produced by human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) supplied with [(3)H]7K but not in HMDMs from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) shown to have a splice-junction mutation of sterol 27-hydroxylase. Whereas [(3)H]27OH-7K was predominantly secreted into the medium, [(3)H]-27OH formed from [(3)H]-cholesterol was mostly cell-associated. The majority of supplied [(3)H]7K was metabolized beyond 27OH-7K to aqueous-soluble products (apparently bile acids derived from the sterol 27-hydroxylase pathway). metabolism to aqueous-soluble products was ablated by a sterol 27-hydroxylase inhibitor and absent in CTX cells. Sterol 27-hydroxylase therefore appears to represent an important pathway by which macrophages eliminate not only cholesterol but also oxysterols such as 7K. The fact that 7K (and cholesterol) still accumulates in lesions and foam cells indicates that this pathway may be perturbed in atherosclerosis and affords a new opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies to regress atherosclerotic lesions.
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2/4. Clinical and biochemical features, molecular diagnosis and long-term management of a case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive sterol storage disease characterised clinically by juvenile bilateral cataracts, progressive neurological dysfunction, and formation of tendon xanthomata. We describe the clinical and biochemical features, molecular diagnosis and long-term management of the first reported Australasian case of CTX. Molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of CTX and demonstrated that the patient was homozygous for a G-->A transition in the splice donor site of intron 4 of the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene. serum cholestanol concentrations were decreased with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin alone and greater reductions were achieved after the addition of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid; suggesting a synergistic effect of this combination. Despite serum cholestanol concentrations remaining within the low-normal range, there has been no significant improvement in mental and physical abilities or in EEG abnormalities with 5 years of treatment. metabolism of radiolabeled 7-ketocholesterol to aqueous soluble products was absent in CTX-derived macrophages. Consistent with this finding, plasma 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol concentrations were increased in the CTX subject compared with controls.
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3/4. Familial hypercholesterolemia presenting as intracranial xanthoma.

    A 22 years female who was diagnosed as having cholestseatoma of right ear was referred to us for medical fitness. On examination she incidentally had evidence of tuberous and tendon xanthomas. She was found to have hypercholesterolemia. On mastoid exploration a yellowish groomous mass was seen which was surrounded by foamy macrophages, suggestive of 'mastoid xanthoma'. The purpose of this case presentation is to report occurrence of such rare case and importance of early detection that will warrant treatment with proper diet and medical management. This will stabilize lesions and delay complications.
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4/4. Pulmonary manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

    We investigated five cases with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) with particular reference to biochemical and pathological pulmonary disorders. To date, few reports discuss the pathophysiology of pulmonary disorders of CTX patients. This study is the first investigation of such pulmonary disorders. All 5 patients had no pulmonary symptoms and no disturbances on radiological studies and pulmonary function tests. However, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, many cells with cruciform reflexes, which is characteristic of intracellular sterol accumulation, were found under phase contrast microscopy. Biochemically, cholestanol was found to be increased in the BAL fluid as well as in serum. Pathological findings of transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) samples disclosed foamy macrophages and small granulomas in alveolar septa. In conclusion, the lung was apparently involved in CTX, and the lesions were characterized with the accumulation of foamy and giant cells with a high concentration of cholestanol, which likely results in the formation of foreign body granulomas.
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