Cases reported "Xerostomia"

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1/33. xerostomia: a prevalent condition in the elderly.

    Although xerostomia is associated with aging, studies have determined that salivary gland function is well preserved in the healthy geriatric population. Therefore, dry mouth is probably not a condition of aging, but most likely one of systemic or extrinsic origin. Saliva seems to undergo chemical changes with aging. As the amount of ptyalin decreases and mucin increases, saliva can become thick and viscous and present problems for the elderly. One of the most prevalent causes of xerostomia is medication. Anticholinergics, such as psychotropic agents and antihistamines, and diuretics can dry the oral mucosa. Chronic mouth breathing, radiation therapy, dehydration, and autoimmune diseases, such as Sjogren's, can also diminish salivation, as can systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, nephritis, and thyroid dysfunction. xerostomia can lead to dysgeusia, glossodynia, sialadenitis, cracking and fissuring of the oral mucosa, and halitosis. Oral dryness can affect denture retention, mastication, and swallowing. Dry mouth symptom can be treated with hydration and sialagogues or with artificial saliva substitutes. Because patients are at risk for dental caries, they should be referred to a dentist for preventive care. In patients with sjogren's syndrome and in those who have undergone radiation therapy, pilocarpine has been used recently with good results.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dental caries, caries, dental
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2/33. The investigation of major salivary gland agenesis: a case report.

    Salivary gland agenesis is an extremely uncommon congenital anomaly, which may cause a profound xerostomia in children. The oral sequelae includes dental caries, candidosis, and ascending sialadenitits. The present report details a child with rampant dental caries secondary to xerostomia. Despite having oral disease for many years, the congenital absence of all the salivary glands failed to be established until early adulthood. The appropriate investigation and management of the xerostomic child allows a definitive diagnosis to be made and attention focused on the prevention and treatment of resultant oral disease.
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ranking = 2
keywords = dental caries, caries, dental
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3/33. Syndromes with salivary dysfunction predispose to tooth wear: case reports of congenital dysfunction of major salivary glands, Prader-Willi, congenital rubella, and Sjogren's syndromes.

    Four cases-of congenital dysfunction of the major salivary glands as well as of Prader-Willi, congenital rubella, and Sjogren's syndromes-were identified in a series of 500 patients referred for excessive tooth wear. Although there was evidence of consumption of highly acidic drinks, some occlusal parafunction, and unacceptable toothbrushing habits, salivary dysfunction was the salient factor predisposing a patient to tooth wear in these syndromal cases. The 500 subjects have been characterized either as having medical conditions and medications that predispose them to xerostomia or lifestyles in which workplace- and sports-related dehydration lead to reduced salivary flow. Normal salivation, by buffering capacity, clearance by swallowing, pellicle formation, and capacity for remineralization of demineralized enamel, protects the teeth from extrinsic and intrinsic acids that initiate dental erosion. Thus, the syndromes, unrelated in many respects, underline the importance of normal salivation in the protection of teeth against tooth wear by erosion, attrition, and abrasion.
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ranking = 0.014022868346648
keywords = dental
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4/33. burning mouth syndrome.

    A critical component of the dental hygiene process of care is assessment of the oral and general health conditions of clients. Some clients present with burning and painful sensations in the oral cavity in the absence of any noticeable disease. This condition has been referred to as burning mouth syndrome (BMS), an often complicated condition. Various local, systemic, and psychological factors have been linked with BMS, but its etiology is not fully understood. Yet as many as one million people are affected by it in the united states, and it is an increasingly-common problem in the aging population. Middle-aged women, mostly postmenopausal, are diagnosed with symptoms seven times more frequently than men. Careful diagnosis and treatment are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of this condition. Referral to a physician is warranted in some cases. The purposes of this course are to review the etiologic factors and clinical implications related to this condition and to discuss appropriate dental hygiene interventions. Collaboration among the client, dental hygienist, dentist, and physician provides for interdisciplinary actions that can lead to palliation of symptoms and evaluation of the possible underlying factors contributing to the condition.
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ranking = 0.042068605039943
keywords = dental
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5/33. Treatment of an edentulous patient with a dry mouth.

    Dental health professionals are being asked to care for a growing number and range of medically compromised patients living with chronic health problems. Although tooth loss overall has declined in the united states, millions of persons, particularly those of more advanced age, still require treatment for the edentulous condition. Particular challenges are faced when this oral state is combined with a complex medical history. The primary learning objective for this case is to increase your general knowledge of and skills in the dental management of the complete denture patient with a dry mouth.
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ranking = 0.014022868346648
keywords = dental
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6/33. oral manifestations of triple A syndrome.

    Triple A (four A; Allgrove syndrome) syndrome is a an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrimia, achalasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, and various neurological abnormalities. We report a case of triple A syndrome in a 14-year-old female patient together with oral manifestations. The importance of this case report is to highlight the necessity of referring the young patients with xerostomia from dental to medical specialists.
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ranking = 0.014022868346648
keywords = dental
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7/33. Aplasia of submandibular salivary glands associated with ectodermal dysplasia.

    We describe a 28-year-old white Caucasian man displaying many of the physical signs of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). An unusual finding was his presentation with xerostomia. Salivary gland imaging techniques revealed aplasia of both submandibular salivary glands and relatively small parotids. The case highlights that hypoplasia and aplasia of exocrine glands could be rare features of ED. In the management of ED, early detection of xerostomia is important to limit any potential damage to the already hypodontic dentition.
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ranking = 3.8440095494092E-6
keywords = white
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8/33. Aplasia of the parotid gland in down syndrome.

    Salivary gland aplasia has not to our knowledge been previously reported in association with down syndrome. We present a case of bilateral parotid aplasia in a patient with down syndrome. Clinically he had aplasia of the major salivary glands and symptoms of xerostomia. Thirteen other family members over three generations were examined, and all had functional parotid glands. We reviewed publications about down syndrome and salivary aplasia, together with the data regarding his other clinical problems and family background. His oral problems were inadequate plaque control, dental caries, and erosion of the teeth.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dental caries, caries, dental
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9/33. Etiology of xerostomia and dental caries among methamphetamine abusers.

    This study reviews the peripheral effects of methamphetamine on the salivary acini, the pathogenesis of methamphetamine-induced xerostomia, and its anecdotal relationship to dental caries. methamphetamine is a sympathomimetic central stimulant which is abused for its euphoric effects. Its pharmacological action is exerted indirectly by sustaining high levels of catecholamines in the synaptic cleft and directly by binding to the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors. methamphetamine abusers report subjective perception of xerostomia, which cannot be explained by the direct peripheral action of methamphetamine on the secretory acini. The drug may cause a decrease in salivary flow rate by centrally inhibiting salivatory nuclei via stimulation of alpha-2 receptors in the brain. Drug mediated dehydration state may influence the perception of dry mouth in abusers. The decreased salivary flow rate, either due to a central inhibitory action of methamphetamine or generalised dehydration, likely contributes to the increased occurrence of dental caries. Five cases of methamphetamine abuse are presented, three of whom experienced rampant dental caries. A direct association between methamphetamine abuse and the occurrence of rampant caries was not clear.
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ranking = 7.1073206672953
keywords = dental caries, caries, dental
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10/33. diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis prompted by orofacial manifestations: a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis is a multifactorial systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown origin characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in the organs involved. sarcoidosis also may manifest in the oral and maxillofacial region. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a patient with xerostomia, dysgeusia, oral burning, xerophthalmia and bilateral parotid enlargement. She was diagnosed as having systemic sarcoidosis on the basis of the histologic findings of a biopsy of the labial minor salivary gland, as well as subsequent diagnostic evalutons. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Enlargement of major salivary glands may be the first sign of sarcoidosis in a patient with few other symptoms or clinical findings suggestive of the disease. This case emphasizes the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling associated with xerostomia. It also highlights the dentist's potential role in the diagnosis and dental treatment of patients with systemic sarcoidosis.
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ranking = 0.014022868346648
keywords = dental
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