Cases reported "Xerostomia"

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1/24. xerostomia: a prevalent condition in the elderly.

    Although xerostomia is associated with aging, studies have determined that salivary gland function is well preserved in the healthy geriatric population. Therefore, dry mouth is probably not a condition of aging, but most likely one of systemic or extrinsic origin. Saliva seems to undergo chemical changes with aging. As the amount of ptyalin decreases and mucin increases, saliva can become thick and viscous and present problems for the elderly. One of the most prevalent causes of xerostomia is medication. Anticholinergics, such as psychotropic agents and antihistamines, and diuretics can dry the oral mucosa. Chronic mouth breathing, radiation therapy, dehydration, and autoimmune diseases, such as Sjogren's, can also diminish salivation, as can systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, nephritis, and thyroid dysfunction. xerostomia can lead to dysgeusia, glossodynia, sialadenitis, cracking and fissuring of the oral mucosa, and halitosis. Oral dryness can affect denture retention, mastication, and swallowing. Dry mouth symptom can be treated with hydration and sialagogues or with artificial saliva substitutes. Because patients are at risk for dental caries, they should be referred to a dentist for preventive care. In patients with sjogren's syndrome and in those who have undergone radiation therapy, pilocarpine has been used recently with good results.
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2/24. Chronic ulcerative stomatitis: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Certain mucocutaneous diseases present with painful, ulcerative, or erosive oral manifestations. Chronic ulcerative stomatitis is a newly recognized disease of unknown origin which presents clinically with features of desquamative gingivitis. This report marks only the thirteenth case reported in the world literature. A review of previous reports and studies is presented along with a review of immunofluorescence techniques critical to proper diagnosis. These diseases are difficult to diagnose without the use of immunofluorescence techniques. A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 2- to 3-year history of stomatitis and dry mouth. methods: Direct immunofluorescence revealed a speckled pattern of IgG deposits in the basal one-third of the epithelium, while indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antigen (SES-ANA), both pathognomonic for chronic ulcerative stomatitis. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated using topical corticosteroid therapy.
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3/24. burning mouth syndrome.

    A critical component of the dental hygiene process of care is assessment of the oral and general health conditions of clients. Some clients present with burning and painful sensations in the oral cavity in the absence of any noticeable disease. This condition has been referred to as burning mouth syndrome (BMS), an often complicated condition. Various local, systemic, and psychological factors have been linked with BMS, but its etiology is not fully understood. Yet as many as one million people are affected by it in the united states, and it is an increasingly-common problem in the aging population. Middle-aged women, mostly postmenopausal, are diagnosed with symptoms seven times more frequently than men. Careful diagnosis and treatment are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of this condition. Referral to a physician is warranted in some cases. The purposes of this course are to review the etiologic factors and clinical implications related to this condition and to discuss appropriate dental hygiene interventions. Collaboration among the client, dental hygienist, dentist, and physician provides for interdisciplinary actions that can lead to palliation of symptoms and evaluation of the possible underlying factors contributing to the condition.
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4/24. Lower lip-lifting brace for bilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report.

    A 55-year-old man suffered from pontine hemorrhage 5 years before he visited our outpatient clinic with complaints of gait disturbance and dysphagia. At the first examination, his inability to close his mouth, eyes, and lower lip led to the diagnosis of facial diplegia. He was instructed to wear a gauze surgical mask and to use artificial saliva for his xerostomia. A videofluorogram of his swallowing excluded aspiration but revealed dysphagia attributable to neck hyperextension arising from efforts to prevent food spilling from his mouth. We prescribed a brace to lift his lower lip as a treatment of his dysphagia. This brace covered his chin to support his lower lip. Our brace resulted in improved function; liquids no longer leaked from his mouth and because the lip elevation eliminated his xerostomia, he no longer required artificial saliva or the gauze mask.
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5/24. Treatment of an edentulous patient with a dry mouth.

    Dental health professionals are being asked to care for a growing number and range of medically compromised patients living with chronic health problems. Although tooth loss overall has declined in the united states, millions of persons, particularly those of more advanced age, still require treatment for the edentulous condition. Particular challenges are faced when this oral state is combined with a complex medical history. The primary learning objective for this case is to increase your general knowledge of and skills in the dental management of the complete denture patient with a dry mouth.
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6/24. Oral involvement in a case of AA amyloidosis.

    A case of oral involvement of amyloid associated (AA) amyloidosis (secondary systemic amyloidosis) in a patient who is suffering from psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, is described. The patient was complaining of pain in the oral cavity (burning mouth), especially on the tongue, and difficulty in chewing and swallowing foods. Oral examination revealed a few papules on the dorsum of the tongue associated with xerostomia. In addition, two slightly painful, small ulcers, localized on the vestibule of the mouth were observed. biopsy of the tongue demonstrated amyloid deposits.
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7/24. pilocarpine toxicity and the treatment of xerostomia.

    pilocarpine has been used as an ophthalmologic agent for decades; however, toxicity rarely has been reported in the medical literature. Oral pilocarpine tablets, as well as another muscarinic agent (cevimeline), have recently been approved for the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia). We report a case of unintentional overdose of oral pilocarpine tablets that resulted in bradycardia, mild hypotension, and muscarinic symptoms in a patient with sjogren's syndrome. The patient's symptoms were relieved with 0.5 mg intravenous atropine and she recovered uneventfully. The case is unique in that it is the first reported ingestion of oral pilocarpine tablets and the first dosing error reported for this indication. In addition, this case underscores the importance of communication between physician and patient and the resulting toxicity related to miscommunication.
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8/24. Improvement of dry mouth by replacing paroxetine with fluvoxamine.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of improvement of paroxetine-induced dry mouth by substitution of fluvoxamine and analyze this case based on receptor occupancy theory. CASE SUMMARY: A 66-year-old woman with major depressive disorder had been treated with brotizolam 0.5 mg/day, flunitrazepam 2 mg/day, sulpiride 100 mg/day, bromazepam 2 mg/day, trazodone 25 mg/day, and paroxetine hydrochloride 10 mg/day. Although her psychological symptoms improved gradually, she complained of dry mouth. paroxetine was replaced with fluvoxamine maleate 50 mg/day, and the dryness disappeared within a month. DISCUSSION: We calculated the time courses of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor occupancy after oral administration of paroxetine and fluvoxamine at the treatment doses by using pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the literature. The mACh receptor occupancy was estimated to be decreased from 0.22% to 0.020% by replacing paroxetine with fluvoxamine. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of dry mouth observed after the replacement of paroxetine with fluvoxamine in this patient may have been due to a decrease in the mACh receptor occupancy.
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9/24. Etiology of xerostomia and dental caries among methamphetamine abusers.

    This study reviews the peripheral effects of methamphetamine on the salivary acini, the pathogenesis of methamphetamine-induced xerostomia, and its anecdotal relationship to dental caries. methamphetamine is a sympathomimetic central stimulant which is abused for its euphoric effects. Its pharmacological action is exerted indirectly by sustaining high levels of catecholamines in the synaptic cleft and directly by binding to the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors. methamphetamine abusers report subjective perception of xerostomia, which cannot be explained by the direct peripheral action of methamphetamine on the secretory acini. The drug may cause a decrease in salivary flow rate by centrally inhibiting salivatory nuclei via stimulation of alpha-2 receptors in the brain. Drug mediated dehydration state may influence the perception of dry mouth in abusers. The decreased salivary flow rate, either due to a central inhibitory action of methamphetamine or generalised dehydration, likely contributes to the increased occurrence of dental caries. Five cases of methamphetamine abuse are presented, three of whom experienced rampant dental caries. A direct association between methamphetamine abuse and the occurrence of rampant caries was not clear.
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10/24. Primary amyloidosis with dry eyes and dry mouth--a case report.

    We report a rare case of dry eyes and dry mouth caused by primary amyloidosis. A 66-year-old woman with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia died of acute respiratory failure. Shirmer's test, gum test, and sialography indicated sjogren's syndrome. lip biopsy revealed amyloid deposition around the salivary ducts. Bence-Jones protein was noted in the urine. At autopsy, amyloid deposition was identified histochemically in many organs, mainly on the vessel walls. Primary amyloidosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of sjogren's syndrome.
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