Cases reported "Yellow Fever"

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1/14. First case of yellow fever in french guiana since 1902.

    The first case of yellow fever in french guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from brazil and ecuador.
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2/14. Fatal yellow fever in a traveler returning from venezuela, 1999.

    On September 28, 1999, a previously healthy 48-year-old man from california sought care at a local emergency department (ED) and was hospitalized with a 2-day history of fever (102 F [38.9 C]), chills, headache, photophobia, diffuse myalgias, joint pains, nausea, vomiting, constipation, upper abdominal discomfort, and general weakness. On September 26, he had returned from a 10-day trip to venezuela. On September 29, an infectious disease physician from the ED contacted the Marin County Health Department (MCHD) about the patient's symptoms; MCHD reported his illness to the california Department of health services (CDHS) as a suspected case of viral hemorrhagic fever. This report describes the investigation of the case.
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3/14. Fatal yellow fever in a traveler returning from Amazonas, brazil, 2002.

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquitoborne viral disease that has caused deaths in U.S. and European travelers to sub-Saharan africa and tropical south america. Although no specific treatment exists for YF and the case-fatality rate for severe YF is approximately 20%, an effective vaccine is available. This report describes a case of fatal YF in an unvaccinated traveler who had returned from a 6-day fishing trip on the Rio Negro west of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, brazil. Because information from some commercial outfitters and travel agents might underestimate health risks, healthcare providers and travelers should review vaccination and other traveler's health recommendations from public health agencies.
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4/14. Fatal myeloencephalitis following yellow fever vaccination in a case with hiv infection.

    A 53 year old physically healthy man, unaware of any immunocompromised condition developed rapidly fatal myelomeningoencephalitis following a live-attenuated yellow fever vaccination. He was found to have asymptomatic hiv infection with high viral loads and low CD4 counts. This is the first reported case of such an incidence in the world literature. It is strongly suggested that in countries where hiv infection is endemic, an hiv blood test should be performed prior to the yellow fever vaccination and the vaccine should not be given to those immunocompromised persons.
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5/14. A Belgian traveler who acquired yellow fever in the gambia.

    A 47-year-old Belgian woman acquired yellow fever during a 1-week vacation in The gambia; she had never been vaccinated against yellow fever. She died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days after the onset of the first symptoms. This dramatic case demonstrates that it is important for persons to be vaccinated against yellow fever before they travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic, even if the country, like The gambia, does not require travelers to be vaccinated.
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6/14. Isolation and characterization of wild type yellow fever virus in cases temporally associated with 17DD vaccination during an outbreak of yellow fever in brazil.

    A mass vaccination was carried out in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeast region of brazil, to control an outbreak of sylvatic yellow fever in 2001. During the outbreak the surveillance system identified two fatal cases temporally associated with YF vaccination. Virus recovered from blood and postmortem samples of both cases was identified as yellow fever virus. Partial nucleotide sequence of parts of prM/E and the non-structural (NS) 5 genes and 3' non-coding region (3' NCR) was employed to characterize the origin of yellow fever virus (YFV) involved in both cases. Wild-type YFV was identified as the etiologic agent responsible for the disease.
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7/14. risk of fatal adverse events associated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine.

    Yellow fever (YF), an acute infectious disease, is endemic in the north and central-west of brazil. This disease can be prevented by the use of a vaccine. In brazil, four fatal adverse events have been associated with the YF vaccine used in the country (17DD vaccine). We briefly describe the last two fatalities, and estimate the risk of 17DD-associated fatal adverse events under different epidemiological scenarios. Controversies regarding the appropriate denominator that enters the estimation of risk serve as a motivation for each proposed scenario. The statistical procedures used show optimum behaviour when assessing the risk of rare events. risk estimates vary from 0.043 (95 % CI 0.017-0.110) to 2.131 (95 % CI 0.109-12.071) fatalities per million doses administered. The robust estimates of the risk of fatal adverse events we present constitute an important element in future risk-benefit analysis and point to the need for good quality vaccine coverage and adverse-events surveillance data to assess the risk of vaccination. Although vaccination of YF endemic regions is necessary to maintain low disease prevalence, preventive administration of YF vaccine to the entire population should be cautiously analysed.
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8/14. Analysis of two imported cases of yellow fever infection from Ivory Coast and The gambia to germany and belgium.

    BACKGROUND: Yellow fever remains one of the great burdens for public health in the endemic regions in africa and south america. The under reporting of yellow fever cases in the respective regions and lack of international interest leads to an underestimation of the constant danger in these areas. Non-vaccinated travelers take a high risk without the effective protection of YFV 17D vaccination. OBJECTIVES: Two YF cases were imported to europe in the last 4 years. We characterized two yellow fever virus (YFV) isolates from severely infected patients coming back from africa, Ivory Coast and The gambia, by genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. STUDY DESIGN: The virus infections in different organs were analyzed with pathological, immunohistological, electronmicroscopical and quantitative real-time PCR methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: High virus loads in spleen and liver (2.4 x 10 (6) to 3 x 10 (7)GE/mL) demonstrated by real time PCR show massive virus replication leading to extraordinary progression of the disease in these patients. Immunohistological and electronmicroscopical analysis confirms virus particles in liver tissue. In all other organs no virus could be detected. A fast, specific and sensitive virus PCR detection is recommended for diagnostic of acute infections. The further sequence alignments show that the new isolates belong to the type II West African strain with great homology to over 40-year old YF isolates from senegal and ghana. The divergence observed was on average 3.3%, ranging from 0.0% to 5.0% in the coding region of gambia 2001 strain and 2.9 %, ranging from 0.0% to 4.3% in the coding region of the Ivory C 1999 strain. Most mutations (5.0%/4.3%, respectively) occurred in the envelope protein.
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9/14. yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease and death in spain.

    yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a recently described severe adverse event after yellow fever vaccination, and some cases have been reported in different countries [Anonymous. Effects of yellow fever and vaccination. Lancet 2001;358(9296):1907-9]. Herein we describe a YEL-AVD case in a young woman, who died after vaccination with 17D-204 strain. Clinical, serological and immunochemical analysis as well as virus detection, quantification, sequence analysis and cytokine release, were performed. Further investigations on yellow fever vaccine adverse events, and carefully analysis of the immune response elicited are important tasks for the future.
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10/14. Fulminant hepatitis: a clinical review of 11 years.

    24 cases of fulminant hepatitis (FH) hospitalized in the Clinica de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo during the period from January 1976 to December 1986 were reviewed from their clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects. 88% of the patients died; 20 patients (83%) presented hemorrhages and, of these, 19 died. bacterial infections occurred in 14 patients (58%) all of whom died. Ascitis was noted in 3 cases; cerebral edema was present in 16 cases. Maximal ALT levels for each patient during hospitalization ranged widely from 81 to 4,460 UI/l. Thirteen patients presented high creatinine levels (54%). prothrombin time activity ranged from 2.1% to 67%. Fever was present in 20 cases (83%). Encephalopathy occurred within the first 2 weeks of illness in 72% of the cases. In 7 cases other illnesses were present. The etiology could not be determined in 13 cases. In 3 cases it was due to yellow fever and 6 cases were caused by viruses other than yellow fever. In one case the cause was drug usage and in another case, possibly alcohol. The authors believe that the clinical definition of FH requires further discussion before it is established. In this study FH is a young person's disease. The mortality found was similar to that by other authors. Factors that contributed to death were: hemorrhages and bacterial infection. Factors that worsened the prognosis of hepatitis were: associated illnesses and surgical procedure. The levels of ALT during hospitalization did not correlate well with the severity of the hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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