Cases reported "Zenker Diverticulum"

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1/11. Endoscopic therapy for Zenkers's diverticulum by means of argon plasma coagulation.

    We describe a 80-year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia because of a Zenker's diverticulum. barium swallow study revealed a large posterior diverticulum with a distal stenosis of the esophagus caused by compression. Because the patient was a poor candidate for surgery an endoscopic therapy was performed. The Zenker bridge was divided by argon plasma coagulation in two sessions without any complication to allow an overflow. The patient remained asymptomatic to date for a follow-up of 6 months.
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2/11. Endoscopic treatment of a Zenker's diverticulum using argon plasma coagulation in a patient with massive cachexia and esophageal obstruction: a case report and review of literature.

    A case report is presented of an 86-year-old man in a very poor general condition with a 10-year history of a Zenker's diverticulum as a cause of a complete obstruction of the esophagus with subsequent aphagia and massive cachexia. Because of high surgical risk and contraindications to general anesthesia, an approach with the flexible endoscope to perform cricopharyngeal myotomy was undertaken. Several attempts with the flexible endoscope by experienced investigators had been performed until the esophageal inlet was intubated and argon plasma coagulation could be applied in several sessions to divide the tissue bridge between the esophagus and the zenker diverticulum to successfully restore the pharyngoesophageal passage.
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3/11. Esophageal intubation with duodenoscope in the presence of pharyngeal pouch by a guidewire and catheter-guided technique.

    esophageal perforation can occur during blind intubation with a side-viewing duodenoscope during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) in patients with pharyngeal or esophageal anomalies. We describe a case of difficult intubation during an ERCP due to an asymptomatic and unsuspected pharyngeal pouch (Zenker's diverticulum). The side-viewing duodenoscope was withdrawn once resistance was encountered during intubation, and a forward-viewing gastroscope was inserted carefully under direct vision to evaluate the upper esophagus. After the diagnosis was made, intubation of the duodenoscope was performed by exchanging scopes over a guidewire. Subsequent ERCP with sphincterectomy and stone removal was uneventful. We caution that a side-viewing duodenoscope should be withdrawn once resistance is encountered during blind intubation during ERCP. Our technique minimizes patient discomfort and is rapid and easy to perform. In addition, no extra device such as an overtube is required.
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4/11. Weerda diverticuloscope: novel use to remove embedded esophageal foreign bodies.

    Embedded sharp foreign bodies of the cervical esophagus represent a clinical challenge. Initial attempts at removal are usually undertaken by nonsurgical endoscopists who are often successful with blunt objects. Unsuccessful attempts with sharp objects, however, can result in distal migration, mucosal damage, and frank perforation. Thoracic surgeons are often called on for cervical esophagotomy after endoscopic attempts have failed. This report describes the novel use of a Weerda diverticuloscope for removal of a dental appliance with metallic hooks embedded in the cervical esophagus.
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5/11. Fluoroscopic balloon-guided transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with Zenker's diverticulum.

    During the past 20 years, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) became an important diagnostic technique. Indications for TEE include: defining the cause and severity of native valve disease, particularly mitral regurgitation; detecting vegetations and other sequelae of endocarditis; assessing prosthetic valve function; and identifying a potential cardiac source for emboli.(1) TEE is usually well tolerated and is associated with few adverse events. However, structural abnormalities of the esophagus such as diverticula, stenoses, tumors, and advanced varices are relative contraindications to TEE because of the technical difficulties associated with probe advancement and the risk of esophageal perforation.(2) This report describes the successful performance of TEE in a patient with a Zenker's diverticulum. The patient was severely symptomatic of atrial fibrillation and was a poor candidate for long-term anticoagulation. Therefore, it was necessary to rule out a thrombus before cardioversion. Because the Zenker's diverticulum was large, a novel approach was taken using a balloon to occlude the orifice allowing safe passage of the TEE probe.
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6/11. Esophageal diverticula: current classification and important complications.

    Esophageal diverticula, although often asymptomatic or discovered incidentally during the workup of unrelated symptoms, may serve as a sign to clinicians of an ongoing dysmotility process involving the esophagus, particularly in our aging population. As well, esophageal diverticula may lead to unexpected complications as a result of instrumentation such as endoscopy or nasogastric tube placement that may result in significant morbidity and mortality including esophageal perforation. This article discusses these topics in detail with special emphasis on radiologic diagnosis and information for clinicians for management and avoidance of potentially serious complications.
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7/11. Primary endoscopic management of esophageal perforation following transesophageal echocardiogram.

    A 90-year-old woman sustained a proximal esophageal perforation following transesophageal echocardiography. The perforation originated at the site of a Zenker's diverticulum and resulted in a false passage to the diaphragm. Initial management involved endoscopic placement of drains into the mediastinum in addition to bilateral chest drains and a gastrostomy. Following stabilization, the patient had repair of her Zenker's diverticulum and recovered uneventfully. We recommend that all procedures involving blind intubation of the esophagus should be preceded with specific pursuit of a background of cervical dysphagia.
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8/11. Endoscopic retrieval of a capsule endoscope from a Zenker's diverticulum.

    We report a case of a capsule endoscope lodged within a Zenker's diverticulum. The capsule was safely removed endoscopically. Safe re-insertion of the capsule was achieved using an overtube placed with a Savary dilator. While capsule endoscopy should be avoided in patients with large esophageal diverticula or dysphagia, this method may be used to deliver the capsule beyond the esophagus, allowing completion of the capsule endoscopy study.
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9/11. Pharyngeal diverticulum as a sequela of anterior cervical fusion.

    A rarely diagnosed etiology of dysphagia is a pharyngeal diverticula occurring after anterior cervical fusion. Here we review 2 cases where patients developed pharyngeal diverticula following anterior cervical fusion. The first patient was a 28-year-old female who presented with regurgitation following C5 through C6 cervical fusion. She was diagnosed with a pharyngeal diverticulum and underwent open repair, but began to experience symptoms again a few months later. A barium swallow showed a recurrent pharyngeal diverticulum. Endoscopic repair was attempted; however, because of the thick scar band between the diverticulum and the esophagus, the operation had to be converted to an open repair with cricopharyngeal myotomy. The second case involved a 63-year-old male who presented with dysphagia and regurgitation 6 months after anterior cervical fusion. Esophagram demonstrated a small diverticulum at the right lateral border of the upper esophagus. Open repair of the diverticulum with cricopharyngeal myotomy was successfully performed. Pharyngeal diverticula after anterior cevical fusion have only been reported in 2 prior cases in the literature. Here we describe 2 additional cases at our institution, both requiring open repair. Radiographic studies demonstrate the diverticulum at the site of scarring from the cervical fusion. Because of the thick scar band and the atypical location of these diverticula, endoscopic repair with stapping (as done for Zenker's diverticula) may not be feasible. These cases highlight the importance of considering a diverticulum in the differential of posoperative patients presenting to the otolaryngologists with complaints of dysphagia following cevical spine surgery.
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10/11. A technique for performing transesophageal echocardiography safely in patients with Zenker's diverticulum.

    Transesophageal echocardiography was indicated for evaluation of mitral valve pathology in a patient with a Zenker's diverticulum. However, transesophageal echocardiography is potentially dangerous and therefore relatively contraindicated in such patients. Our gastroenterologist directly intubated the esophagus with a fiberoptic endoscope and introduced an overtube through which transesophageal echocardiography was performed without incident.
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