Cases reported "Zoonoses"

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1/11. infection with verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 during a visit to an inner city open farm.

    Two cases of escherichia coli o157 infection occurred in children after visiting an inner city open farm. Subsequently faecal samples collected from animal pens and samples of composted mixed animal manure and vegetable waste were examined for E. coli O157 by enrichment culture, immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic beads to cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. Strains of E. coli O157 were characterized by hybridization with dna probes for VT1, VT2 and eaeA, plasmid profile analysis, phage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O157 strains were isolated from faecal samples from a cow, a horse, 3 breeds of pigs, 2 breeds of sheep and 2 breeds of goats and from 2 samples of compost which had been processed for 3 months. All strains were phage type 21, hybridized with probes for VT2 and eaeA but not with one for VT1, harboured 92 and 2 kb plasmids and gave indistinguishable banding patterns with PFGE. Although only two culture-confirmed cases of infection had been identified, the farm had over 100,000 visitors per year and so it was closed as a precaution both to allow a thorough investigation and to prevent further cases. The investigation identified many factors which may have contributed to transmission of E. coli O157 infection. Most of these were readily resolved by appropriate corrective measures and as there were no further cases associated with the farm during the ensuing 4 weeks it then re-opened. These cases highlight the risk, especially to young children, of acquiring zoonotic infections during visits to open farms and emphasize the need for adequate guidance and supervision before and during such visits.
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2/11. Streptococcal meningitis resulting from contact with an infected horse.

    We report a case of group C streptococcal meningitis in a woman with a history of close animal contact as well as head trauma as a result of a kick by a horse. blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, as did a throat culture taken from the colt that had kicked her 2 weeks prior to admission.
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3/11. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with staphylococcus spp. bacteremia, responsive to potassium arsenite 0.5% in a veterinary surgeon and his coworking wife, handling with CFS animal cases.

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in human patients remain a controversial and perplexing condition with emerging zoonotic aspects. Recent advances in human medicine seem to indicate a bacterial etiology and the condition has already been described in horses, dogs, cats and birds of prey in association with micrococci-like organisms in the blood. To evaluate the possibility of a chronic bacteremia, a veterinary surgeon (the author) and his coworking wife, both diagnosed with CFS and meeting the CDC working case definition, were submitted to rapid blood cultures and fresh blood smears investigations. blood cultures proved Staph-positive and micrococci-like organisms in the blood were repeatedly observed in the 3-year period preceding the arsenical therapy, during which several medicaments, including antibiotics, proved unsuccessful. Following treatment with a low dosage arsenical drug (potassium arsenite 0.5%, im., 1 ml/12 h, for 10 days) both patients experienced complete remission. At the post-treatment control made 1 month later, micrococci had disappeared from the blood, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was raising.
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4/11. Emerging viral infections in australia.

    hendra virus infection should be suspected in someone with close association with horses or bats who presents acutely with pneumonia or encephalitis (potentially after a prolonged incubation period). Australian bat lyssavirus infection should be suspected in a patient with a progressive neurological illness and a history of exposure to a bat. rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin should be strongly considered after a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure to a bat. Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern asia for more than 30 days.
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5/11. Cutaneous larva migrans, an occupational disease.

    Creeping skin eruption is known to follow exposure to canine and feline hookworm larvae found in contaminated soil encountered in humid, tropical and subtropical regions. A little known hazard of similar infections exists among veterinarians and laboratory workers exposed to strongyloides larvae from horses located in temperate climates. The evolving clinical picture is described in detail. Continued exposure may lead to a state of hypersensitivity to the parasitic protein resulting in severe hyperimmune reactions. The invasiveness of strongyloides larvae through intact skin and the pathologic changes associated with infection were demonstrated in a rabbit.
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6/11. hendra virus infection in a veterinarian.

    A veterinarian became infected with hendra virus (HeV) after managing a terminally ill horse and performing a limited autopsy with inadequate precautions. Although she was initially only mildly ill, serological tests suggested latent HeV infection. Nevertheless, she remains well 2 years after her initial illness. Recently emerged zoonotic viruses, such as HeV, necessitate appropriate working procedures and personal protective equipment in veterinary practice.
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7/11. Zoonotic onchocerca in a Japanese child.

    A female onchocerca was found in histopathological sections of a nodule removed from the foot of a 2-year-old girl in southern japan. As in previously reported cases in switzerland, Crimea, canada, and the USA, evident morphological features of the worm resembled those of onchocerca gutturosa and O. cervicalis, which are known to exist in cervical ligaments of cattle and horses, respectively, in japan and elsewhere.
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8/11. Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses.

    BACKGROUND: In September, 1994, an outbreak of severe respiratory disease affected 18 horses, their trainer, and a stablehand in queensland, australia. Fourteen horses and one human being died. A novel virus was isolated from those affected and named equine morbillivirus (EMV). We report a case of encephalitis caused by this virus. FINDINGS: A 35-year-old man from queensland had a brief aseptic meningitic illness in August, 1994, shortly after caring for two horses that died from EMV infection and then assisting at their necropsies. He then suffered severe encephalitis 13 months later, characterised by uncontrolled focal and generalised epileptic activity. Rising titres of neutralising antibodies to EMV in the patient's serum at the time of the second illness suggested an anamnestic response. Distinctive cortical changes were shown on magnetic resonance neuroimaging and histopathological examination of the brain at necropsy. immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy of brain tissue revealed pathology characteristic of the earlier cases of EMV infection. PCR on cerebrospinal fluid taken during the second illness, brain tissue, and serum retained from the original illness resulted in an amplified product identical to that previously described from EMV. INTERPRETATION: The results of serology, PCR, electronmicroscopy, and immunohistochemistry strongly suggest that EMV was the cause of this patient's encephalitis, and that exposure to the virus occurred 3 months before the fatal illness.
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9/11. Keratomycosis in a Percheron cross horse caused by Cladorrhinum bulbillosum.

    This report describes an infection of a horse's cornea caused by Cladorrhinum bulbillosum. Minor surgery and treatment with antibiotics successfully resolved the infection. The only previous reported case involving this fungus was an Argentinian boy who was infected while working with horses.
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10/11. Zoonotic disease in australia caused by a novel member of the paramyxoviridae.

    Twenty-three horses and three humans in queensland, australia, were infected with a novel member of the paramyxoviridae family of viruses in two geographically distinct outbreaks. Two of the humans died-one died of rapid-onset respiratory illness, and the other died of encephalitis. The third infected human developed an influenza-like illness and made a complete recovery. All infected humans had close contact with sick horses. Since the two outbreaks occurred at sites 1,000 km apart and no known contact between the two groups of humans and horses occurred, extensive testing of animals and birds common to the two areas was conducted. fruit bats (Pteropus species) were found to carry a virus identical to that found in the infected humans and horses. Although there was no contact between the infected humans and the bats, some form of close contact between the horses and bats is the likely mode of infection.
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