Cases reported "Zoonoses"

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1/41. Evidence of zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient.

    BACKGROUND: Although cryptococcosis has been associated with birds for almost 50 years, point sources for infection have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To document zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A home in boston, massachusetts. PATIENT: A 72-year-old woman who received a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in November 1998. The patient, who had been taking immunosuppressant drugs since undergoing renal transplantation in 1989, owned a pet cockatoo. MEASUREMENTS: cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the feces of the cockatoo. Isolates from excreta and from the patient were compared by using biochemical profiles, monoclonal antibody binding patterns, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and karyotyping. RESULTS: The isolates from the patient and the cockatoo had identical biochemical profiles, the same monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence patterns, and indistinguishable patterns on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and karyotyping. CONCLUSIONS: The indistinguishable patient and cockatoo isolates strongly suggest that the patient's infection resulted from exposure to aerosolized cockatoo excreta. Although the incidence of cryptococcal infection due to such exposure is unknown, it may be prudent to advise immunocompromised patients to avoid pet birds and avian excreta.
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2/41. Cases of cat-associated human plague in the Western US, 1977-1998.

    Exposure to cats infected with yersinia pestis is a recently recognized risk for human plague in the US. Twenty-three cases of cat-associated human plague (5 of which were fatal) occurred in 8 western states from 1977 through 1998, which represent 7.7% of the total 297 cases reported in that period. Bites, scratches, or other contact with infectious materials while handling infected cats resulted in 17 cases of bubonic plague, 1 case of primary septicemic plague, and 5 cases of primary pneumonic plague. The 5 fatal cases were associated with misdiagnosis or delays in seeking treatment, which resulted in overwhelming infection and various manifestations of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Unlike infections acquired by flea bites, the occurrence of cat-associated human plague did not increase significantly during summer months. plague epizootics in rodents also were observed less frequently at exposure sites for cases of cat-associated human plague than at exposure sites for other cases. The risk of cat-associated human plague is likely to increase as residential development continues in areas where plague foci exist in the western US. Enhanced awareness is needed for prompt diagnosis and treatment.
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3/41. streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk.

    streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the tonsils of its natural host, the pig. persons at risk are mostly those with an occupational exposure to domestic pigs or their meat products. A case of meningitis caused by streptococcus suis in a poacher who had killed and butchered a wild boar is reported. It appears that wild boar hunters are at additional risk of contracting the disease.
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ranking = 17.170317947337
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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4/41. Late presentation of nipah virus encephalitis and kinetics of the humoral immune response.

    nipah virus is a newly discovered paramyxovirus transmitted directly from pigs to humans. During a large encephalitis outbreak in malaysia and singapore in 1998-9, most patients presented acutely. A 12 year old child is described who developed encephalitis 4 months after exposure to the virus. She was diagnosed by a new indirect IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is also described. The late presentation and IgG subclass responses had similarities to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. nipah virus should be considered in patients with encephalitis even months after their possible exposure.
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5/41. First case of human rabies in chile caused by an insectivorous bat virus variant.

    The first human rabies case in chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in latin america.
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6/41. Emerging viral infections in australia.

    hendra virus infection should be suspected in someone with close association with horses or bats who presents acutely with pneumonia or encephalitis (potentially after a prolonged incubation period). Australian bat lyssavirus infection should be suspected in a patient with a progressive neurological illness and a history of exposure to a bat. Rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin should be strongly considered after a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure to a bat. Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern asia for more than 30 days.
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7/41. A case of human orf contracted from a deer.

    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, is a rare viral dermatosis caused by a member of the genus parapoxvirus. The typical lesion consists of solitary or multiple papules that progress through a series of stages, terminating in complete resolution. This zoonotic disease is most commonly transmitted to humans from infected sheep or goats. We report a case of human orf, likely contracted from exposure to deer carcasses.
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8/41. erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis: a preventable zoonosis?

    BACKGROUND: erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a bacterium ubiquitous in the environment. It can cause a variety of diseases and the risk of infection is closely related to the level of occupational exposure to infected or colonised animals. AIMS: To discuss the clinical features and treatment of this zoonosis, to increase awareness of this pathogen and to emphasise the need for meticulous attention to hygienic work practices in reducing the risk of infection. METHOD: A case report of a farmer with E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis and the management of the infection. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated with valve replacement surgery and antimicrobial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of this microorganism is essential for appropriate treatment of endocarditis. Greater awareness and safe work practices can help reduce the risk of human infection by this microorganism.
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ranking = 17.170317947337
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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9/41. Cutaneous larva migrans, an occupational disease.

    Creeping skin eruption is known to follow exposure to canine and feline hookworm larvae found in contaminated soil encountered in humid, tropical and subtropical regions. A little known hazard of similar infections exists among veterinarians and laboratory workers exposed to strongyloides larvae from horses located in temperate climates. The evolving clinical picture is described in detail. Continued exposure may lead to a state of hypersensitivity to the parasitic protein resulting in severe hyperimmune reactions. The invasiveness of strongyloides larvae through intact skin and the pathologic changes associated with infection were demonstrated in a rabbit.
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10/41. bacteremia due to comamonas species possibly associated with exposure to tropical fish.

    comamonas species are environmental gram-negative rods that grow forming pink-pigmented colonies. Despite their common occurrence in nature, they rarely cause human infection. We present a case of comamonas bacteremia that we think may have been related to tropical fish exposure. The patient was treated successfully with levofloxacin.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = exposure
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