Cases reported "Zoonoses"

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1/9. Mokola virus infection: description of recent South African cases and a review of the virus epidemiology.

    Five cases of Mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. The cases occurred in cats from the East london, Pinetown and Pietermaritzburg areas of south africa from February 1996 to February 1998. Each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. Mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typing. As in rabies cases, the predominant clinical signs were of unusual behaviour. aggression was present, but only during handling. Four of the 5 cats had been vaccinated for rabies, which is consistent with other studies that show that rabies vaccination does not appear to protect against Mokola virus. Since Mokola may be confused with rabies, the incidence of Mokola virus may be more common in Africa than is currently reported. As human infections may be fatal, the emergence of this virus is a potential threat to public health.
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keywords = rabies
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2/9. First case of human rabies in chile caused by an insectivorous bat virus variant.

    The first human rabies case in chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in latin america.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = rabies
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3/9. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in costa rica?

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in costa rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = rabies
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4/9. Imported human rabies--france, 1992.

    Wildlife rabies has been enzootic in france since 1968; however, 13 of the 14 human cases in france were imported, and one was in a person infected through a corneal transplant (1). On May 9, 1992, a 3-year-old boy who resided in algeria died from rabies encephalitis in paris. This report summarizes the investigation of this case by the Pasteur Institute.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = rabies
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5/9. rabies virus infection in a pet guinea pig and seven pet rabbits.

    Raccoon-variant rabies was confirmed in 7 pet rabbits and 1 pet guinea pig in new york State, and postexposure treatment was required in several adults and children. To prevent rabies virus infection, domestic rabbits and pet rodents should be protected from contact with wild animals, including double-cage housing when housed outside. Pet rabbits or rodents with any possible contact with a wild animal, particularly if the rabbit or rodent had wounds of unknown origin, should be quarantined for 6 months for observation, to prevent escape, and to avoid contact with humans, who will require treatment if the rabbit or rodent develops rabies. Bites and scratches to humans from rodents and lagomorphs should be evaluated for potential rabies exposure on an individual basis, with consideration of whether the animal was caged outside or permitted outdoors unsupervised.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = rabies
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6/9. Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US air Force bases.

    A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 air Force bases in nine regions of the united states during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, sarcoptes scabiei var canis, gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = rabies
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7/9. Rabies in ghana, West Africa.

    ghana, like many West, Central and East African countries is an edemic area for rabies. Between 1977 and 1981, despite yearly vaccination programmes of dogs and human being population at risk in 1977, the incidence of rabies is still high. A total of 752 canine and 102 human rabies were reported and confirmed. Hospital case reports of 8 persons that died of the disease confirmed all known facts about rabies except seasonality. Finally, the need for a nationwide effort to control, if not erradicate, the disease by mass vaccination of dogs is highlighted.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = rabies
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8/9. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1994.

    In 1994, 48 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. Two previously described epizootics of rabies involving the raccoon variant of the rabies virus have converged in north carolina, and the resulting region is now continuous from alabama and florida in the South to maine in the North. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern texas continue to expand, with this state reporting 144 rabid foxes, 53 rabid dogs, and 77 of the 85 cases in coyotes during 1994. maine and new hampshire reported cases of rabies in foxes (6 and 9, respectively) for the first time in 10 years. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (153) increased by 17.7%, whereas cases in cattle (111) and cats (267) decreased by 14.6 and 8.3%, respectively. cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-eight states and the district of columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1994, compared with 22 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico in 1993. hawaii and nebraska were the only states that did not report cases of rabies in 1994.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = rabies
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9/9. Non-rabies lyssavirus human encephalitis from fruit bats: Australian bat lyssavirus (pteropid lyssavirus) infection.

    A 39-year-old woman died of encephalitis a few weeks after being scratched by fruit bats. autopsy disclosed meningoencephalomyelitis, and revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions which had similarities to Negri bodies of rabies. Laboratory investigations detected a lyssavirus type previously identified only in fruit bats. This appears to be the first human case of encephalitis due to this lyssavirus type.
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keywords = rabies
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