Cases reported "zoonoses"

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1/292. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical south america.

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical south america. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the united states, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. ( info)

2/292. Mokola virus infection: description of recent South African cases and a review of the virus epidemiology.

    Five cases of Mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. The cases occurred in cats from the East london, Pinetown and Pietermaritzburg areas of south africa from February 1996 to February 1998. Each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. Mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typing. As in rabies cases, the predominant clinical signs were of unusual behaviour. aggression was present, but only during handling. Four of the 5 cats had been vaccinated for rabies, which is consistent with other studies that show that rabies vaccination does not appear to protect against Mokola virus. Since Mokola may be confused with rabies, the incidence of Mokola virus may be more common in Africa than is currently reported. As human infections may be fatal, the emergence of this virus is a potential threat to public health. ( info)

3/292. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.

    Persistent dermatomycosis (ringworm) caused by trichophyton verrucosum affected 20 dairy calves aged between 3 months and 1 year and housed together. The infection also spread to 2 animal attendants working among the calves. The major clinical lesions observed on the affected calves were extensive alopecia and/or circumscribed thick hairless skin patches affecting the head, neck, flanks and limbs. The observed lesions persisted for more than 17 weeks and most of the calves did not respond to topical treatment with various anti-fungal drugs within the anticipated period of 9 weeks. Two animal attendants developed skin lesions that were circumscribed and itchy and there was good response to treatment following the application of anti-fungal skin ointment. Although ringworm in dairy animals in kenya has not previously been associated with spread to humans, the potential is evident from this report. ( info)

4/292. Human dirofilaria repens infection in hungary: a case in the spermatic cord and a review of the literature.

    orchiectomy was performed in a 37-year-old Hungarian man exhibiting a swelling in his right testicle. histology revealed a nodule attached to the spermatic cord, consisting of a granulomatous tissue around sections of a nematode. The worm was identified as dirofilaria repens, an uncommon parasite in hungary. As the patient had been abroad only in italy where cases of dirofilariosis in dogs and humans are relatively frequent, it is assumed that the infection might have been acquired in that country 5 years earlier. This is the fifth case, published so far in the world, of such a localization in a human. The human cases of dirofilariosis reported in hungary are reviewed. ( info)

5/292. mycobacterium marinum infection from a tropical fish tank. Treatment with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole.

    A paronychial granuloma on the left thumb, in a man who kept tanks of tropical fish, was followed by cutaneous nodules on the left upper limb and tender lymph nodes in the left axilla. mycobacterium marinum was isolated from the lesion on the thumb and also from the tank water. Subsidence of the lesions followed administration of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. ( info)

6/292. Human eastern equine encephalitis: immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure.

    The brain of a 7-year-old boy who died of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was examined by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to detect the presence and distribution of viral antigen. A mouse polyclonal antibody was most effective for demonstrating the presence of antigen previously unreported in this disease in humans. Antigen was localized to the perikaryon and dendrites of neurons; little was detected in glial cells. cell death by apoptosis was conspicuous, but it was primarily identified in glial and inflammatory cells. Neuronal death was most commonly marked by cytoplasmic swelling or eosinophilia and nuclear pyknosis. A disassociation between the degree of inflammation and the presence of antigen was noted, especially in cerebral cortex and spinal cord, presumably where infected cells already had been cleared. Ultrastructurally, rare mature viral particles were seen in extracellular spaces. ( info)

7/292. meningoencephalitis caused by a novel paramyxovirus: an advanced MRI case report in an emerging disease.

    Eleven abattoir workers in singapore were infected in March 1999 by an outbreak caused by the nipah virus. This newly discovered, Hendra-like paramyxovirus causes acute infection of the CNS. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings in a patient suffering from acute meningoencephalitis. Multiple small white matter lesions were detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted images. There were no abnormalities detected on MRS. We believe this to be the first reported MRI findings in this novel zoonotic viral disease. ( info)

8/292. Reptile-associated salmonellosis--selected states, 1996-1998.

    During 1996-1998, CDC received reports from approximately 16 state health departments of salmonella infections in persons who had direct or indirect contact with reptiles (i.e., lizards, snakes, or turtles). Salmonella infection can result in invasive illness including sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Despite educational efforts, some reptile owners remain unaware that reptiles place them and their children at risk for salmonellosis. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic information in four cases and provides information about state regulations to prevent transmission of Salmonella spp. from reptiles to humans. ( info)

9/292. Beaver fever--a rare cause of reactive arthritis.

    giardia lamblia infection is rarely associated with adult reactive arthritis. We report the first North American case and review the pediatric and adult literature to date. Antimicrobial treatment is essential to eradicate the parasite and control the arthritis. ( info)

10/292. Evidence of zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient.

    BACKGROUND: Although cryptococcosis has been associated with birds for almost 50 years, point sources for infection have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To document zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A home in boston, massachusetts. PATIENT: A 72-year-old woman who received a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in November 1998. The patient, who had been taking immunosuppressant drugs since undergoing renal transplantation in 1989, owned a pet cockatoo. MEASUREMENTS: cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the feces of the cockatoo. Isolates from excreta and from the patient were compared by using biochemical profiles, monoclonal antibody binding patterns, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and karyotyping. RESULTS: The isolates from the patient and the cockatoo had identical biochemical profiles, the same monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence patterns, and indistinguishable patterns on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and karyotyping. CONCLUSIONS: The indistinguishable patient and cockatoo isolates strongly suggest that the patient's infection resulted from exposure to aerosolized cockatoo excreta. Although the incidence of cryptococcal infection due to such exposure is unknown, it may be prudent to advise immunocompromised patients to avoid pet birds and avian excreta. ( info)
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