Cases reported "Zygomatic Fractures"

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1/97. Reconstructive surgery for complex midface trauma using titanium miniplates: Le Fort I fracture of the maxilla, zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture and nasomaxillary complex fracture, resulting from a motor vehicle accident.

    maxillofacial injuries resulting from trauma can be a challenge to the Maxillo-Facial Surgeon. Frequent causes of these injuries are attributed to automobile accidents, physical altercations, gunshot wounds, home accidents, athletic injuries, work injuries and other injuries. Motor vehicle accidents tend to be the primary cause of most midface fractures and lacerations due to the face hitting the dashboard, windshield and steering wheel or the back of the front seat for passengers in the rear. Seatbelts have been shown to drastically reduce the incidence and severity of these injuries. In the united states seatbelt laws have been enacted in several states thus markedly impacting on the reduction of such trauma. In the philippines rare is the individual who wears seat belts. Metro city traffic, however, has played a major role in reducing daytime MVA related trauma, as usually there is insufficient speed in traffic areas to cause severe impact damage, the same however cannot be said for night driving, or for driving outside of the city proper where it is not uncommon for drivers to zip into the lane of on-coming traffic in order to overtake the car in front ... often at high speeds. Thus, the potential for severe maxillofacial injuries and other trauma related injuries increases in these circumstances. It is however unfortunate that outside of Metro Manila or other major cities there is no ready access to trauma or tertiary care centers, thus these injuries can be catastrophic if not addressed adequately. With the exception of Le Fort II and III craniofacial fractures, most maxillofacial injuries are not life threatening by themselves, and therefore treatment can be delayed until more serious cerebral or visceral, potentially life threatening injuries are addressed first. Our patient was involved in an MVA in Zambales, seen and stabilized in a provincial primary care center initially, then referred to a provincial secondary care center for further stabilization before his transfer to Manila and then ultimately to our Maxillo-Facial Unit. There was a two week-plus delay in the definitive management because of this. As a result of the delay, fibrous tissue and bone callus formation occurred between the various fracture lines, thus once definitive fracture management was attempted, it took on a more reconstructive nature. Hospital based Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgeons are uniquely trained to manage all aspects of the maxillo-facial trauma, and their dental background uniquely qualifies them in functional restoration of lower and midface fractures where occlusion plays a most important role. Likewise, their training in clinical medicine which is usually integrated into their residency education (12 months or more) puts them in a unique position to comfortably manage the basic medical needs of these patients. In instances where trauma may affect other regions of the body, an inter-multi-disciplinary approach may be taken or consults called for. In this instance, an opthalmology consult was important. In fresh trauma, often seen in major trauma centers (i.e. overseas), a "Trauma Team" is on standby 24 hours a day, and is prepared to assess and manage trauma patients almost immediately upon their arrival in the ER. The trauma team is usually composed of a Trauma Surgeon who is a general surgeon with subspecialty training in traumatology who assesses and manages the visceral injuries, an Orthopedic Surgeon who manages fractures of the extremities, a Neurosurgeon for cerebral injuries and an Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgeon for facial injuries. In some institutions, facial trauma call is alternated between the "three major head and neck specialty services", namely Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery, otolaryngology-head & neck Surgery and Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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2/97. life-threatening haemorrhage after elevation of a fractured zygoma.

    A 21-year-old man presented with a fractured left zygoma after an alleged assault. The fracture was elevated four days later, at which time he had a brisk left-sided epistaxis. Recovery was uneventful except for a haematoma that was drained a month later. Two weeks after this, he was admitted after having collapsed. He was shocked and bleeding profusely from his nose. He had a further major bleed in hospital and this was treated by tying off the left external carotid artery. He has made an uneventful recovery and investigations have shown no bleeding diathesis.
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3/97. Oculocardiac reflex induced by zygomatic fracture; a case report.

    Oculocardiac reflex has been recognized as the result of mechanical stimulation to the orbital tissue. The authors encountered a case of severe arrhythmia due to oculocardiac reflex in a patient with a zygomatic fracture. Previous health examinations suggested no abnormalities in the heart in his schooldays, and the initial diagnosis of his arrhythmia as complete A-V block due to injury (using ECG and cardiac ultrasonography). Because his arrhythmia did not improve spontaneously, he underwent cardiac pacing. After repair of the fracture, his arrhythmia completely disappeared. The pacemaker was removed on the first postoperative day. The pathogenesis of this rare case will be discussed.
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4/97. Fixation of a frontozygomatic fracture with a shape-memory staple.

    A simple method using a staple was successfully used to treat a 74-year-old lady with a fractured frontozygomatic suture.
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5/97. Miniplate osteosynthesis and cellular phone create disturbance of infraorbital nerve.

    A 37-year-old man with a zygomatic fracture underwent surgical treatment with reduction of the fracture and osteosynthesis with a miniplate on the infraorbital rim. Postoperatively, he had numbness in the distribution area of the infraorbital nerve, but he also suffered from dysesthesia in the same area during periods when he was using his hand-held mobile phone. After surgical removal of the osteosynthesis plate, the dysesthesia associated with his mobile phone was no longer present. The plate was examined in a setup where we measured the electric current that developed on the surface of the plate under the influence of the magnetic field between the phone antenna and the metal plate. The highest currents measured on the actual plate were 141 mV in air, and 21 mV in saline. These findings indicate that there might have been a correlation between the presence of the miniplate close to the infraorbital nerve, and the dysesthesia experienced by the patient, under the influence of the energy emitted from the cellular phone.
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6/97. Fracture of the coronoid process: report of a case.

    A case of a fracture of the coronoid process associated with a depressed zygomatic fracture is described. Clinical signs, radiology (3D-CT scan), treatment and follow-up are presented.
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7/97. The use of the Naugle orbitometer in maxillofacial trauma.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Objective measuring of globe position is not a universal practice in the management of orbital trauma. Few studies in the literature advocate its routine use. methods AND MATERIALS: The Hertel exophthalmometer is the most widely used instrument; however, in trauma involving the lateral orbital rim (e.g., in zygoma fractures), the results are inaccurate because the displacement of the zygomatic bone interferes with its reference point on the lateral orbital rim. A more recent measuring device, the Naugle orbitometer, was introduced in 1992. It uses the superior orbital rim (frontal bar) and inferior orbital rim (malar eminence) as reference points. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: This article reports experience with this instrument in objective measuring the position of the globe in orbital trauma. These measurements are used 1) to monitor fractures that may not require repair but should be followed and observed for dystopia or enophthalmos, 2) to determine the adequacy of fracture repair, and 3) to determine the volume adjustment required for correcting enophthalmos. Future studies will be directed to compare the accuracy of Naugle and Hertel exophthalmometers.
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8/97. Hydroxyapatite cement in craniofacial trauma surgery: indications and early experience.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of the nonstress-bearing portions of the craniofacial skeleton has recently utilized several alloplastic compounds. One such recent compound is hydroxyapatite cement (HAC)--a calcium-phosphate-based product. Its chemical structure consists primarily of calcium phosphate, as does human bone, and this similarity in the mineral structure renders it biocompatible. methods AND MATERIALS: Based on clinical indications for HAC, the authors have classified acquired craniofacial defects into four types. This article presents 5 clinical cases with craniofacial fractures, sustained in various accidents, in which hydroxyapatite cement was used to prevent cranial deformities or to reinstate contour. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: Complications were encountered in some of these cases, but all patients healed without any secondary complications. While the short-term experience using hydroxyapatite cement in craniofacial trauma surgery has been favorable, long-term studies in humans are required to validate the safety and efficacy of this product.
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9/97. Orbital deformity after craniofacial fracture repair: avoidance and treatment.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To achieve the optimal preoperative appearance following craniofacial fracture repair, the surgeon must be facile in the most sophisticated reconstructive techniques and able to determine their application. The purpose of this article is to describe the common deformities following such repairs, outline a strategy to avoid them, and review the surgical techniques to correct them. methods AND MATERIALS: The deformities are categorized by the anatomic zones of the orbit, i.e., zygomatic, frontal, and nasoethmoidal, affected by low-, middle-, and high-energy impact. The common types of deformity and acute and late treatments are discussed for each category. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: The optimal time to correct posttraumatic orbital deformities is during the acute phase. Extended open reduction and rigid fixation techniques have their own morbidity, which must not outweigh the deformity of an untreated or partially treated injury. The results of late reconstruction are always limited by scarring of the overlaying soft tissue envelope.
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10/97. The use of the C-arm in reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures: a technical overview.

    Isolated zygomatic arch fractures account for approximately 10% of all zygoma fractures. Numerous techniques have been described to reduce these fractures using a variety of approaches. Successful reductions are often difficult to evaluate clinically because of the great amount of swelling that often accompanies these fractures. Postoperative radiographs are often the only way to assess the adequacy of the reduction. This article describes a technique that uses the C-arm to quickly and accurately evaluate the reduction intraoperatively so that appropriate corrections can be made. A case report of a patient who suffered multiple orthopedic injuries and a w-shaped depressed fracture of the left zygomatic arch is presented. The C-arm can obviate the need for intraoperative radiographs that, due to technician and film processing delays, add significantly to operative time.
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