Cases reported "Zygomycosis"

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1/45. Disseminated zygomycosis due to rhizopus schipperae after heatstroke.

    A 21-year-old woman suffered heatstroke and developed diarrhea while trekking across south texas. The heatstroke was complicated by seizures, rhabdomyolysis, pneumonia, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient's stool and blood cultures grew campylobacter jejuni. The patient subsequently developed paranasal and gastrointestinal zygomycosis and required surgical debridement and a prolonged course of amphotericin b. The zygomycete cultured was rhizopus schipperae. This is only the second isolate of R. schipperae that has been described. R. schipperae is characterized by the production of clusters of up to 10 sporangiophores arising from simple but well-developed rhizoids. These asexual reproductive propagules are produced on Czapek Dox agar but are absent on routine mycology media, where only chlamydospores are observed. Despite multiorgan failure, bacteremia, and disseminated zygomycosis, the patient survived and had a good neurological outcome. Heatstroke has not been previously described as a risk factor for the development of disseminated zygomycosis.
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2/45. Gastrointestinal zygomycotic infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: case report and review.

    Basidiobolus species are filamentous fungi belonging to the order entomophthorales. Unlike other zygomycetes, Basidiobolus species have been mainly associated with a tropical form of subcutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals. Visceral disease caused by this pathogen is rare, but cases of gastrointestinal infection with Basidiobolus ranarum have been reported worldwide. In many of these reports, the inflammatory disease of the colon has been confused with Crohn's disease. We report the third case of B. ranarum gastrointestinal infection in the united states, which was initially treated as inflammatory bowel disease.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = zygomycosis
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3/45. Case report. Localized pulmonary zygomycosis without pre-existing immunocompromised status.

    Pulmonary zygomycosis rarely occurs without pre-existing immunocompromised disease. A 72-year-old male was found to have a nodular shadow (3 cm x 4 cm) in the right S8 and S9 on a chest X-ray. Right lower lobectomy was performed and histological examination of the resected material demonstrated pulmonary zygomycosis. hyphae stained positively not only with Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver staining, but also with an anti-rhizopus oryzae polyclonal antibody.
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keywords = zygomycosis
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4/45. Therapeutic experience with fluconazole in the treatment of fungal infections in diabetic patients.

    diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher incidence of certain infections, including fungal infections like rhinocerebral zygomycosis (RCZ) and cutaneous candidosis. As the pathophysiology of increased susceptibility to infection of diabetic patients is very complex, a general therapeutic approach is not existing yet. Appropriate diabetes control remains as the best preventive measure. Nevertheless, effective drug therapy is very often required. fluconazole has proven efficacy in prophylaxis, treatment and suppressive therapy of both systemic and superficial fungal infections, especially in candidosis and cryptococcosis. Therefore it is used routinely against fungal infections in diabetes (FID). Clinical efficacy of fluconazole against cutaneous candidosis, oropharyngeal candidosis (OPC) and vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) has been confirmed in more than 100 studies, involving more than 10,000 patients (pts). The overall success rate is 90%, with a mean dosage of 100-200 mg/d. In severe cases, e.g. in OPC in late-stage AIDS pts or in recurrent VVC, higher dosages of up to 800 mg/d may be required. In the treatment of RCZ, therapeutic experience with fluconazole is limited. Four diabetic pts have been treated with dosages of 200-300 mg/d and all of them recovered. Nevertheless, treatment of RCZ should include surgical debridement combined with aggressive antifungal therapy. In conclusion, proven efficacy and the excellent safety profile justify the routine use of fluconazole in the treatment of FID.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = zygomycosis
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5/45. Gastric zygomycosis diagnosed by brushing cytology.

    A 66-yr-old man with a history of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. After passing black stools, he underwent upper endoscopy which showed gastric ulceration. A gastric brushing was performed which showed numerous nonseptate, ribbon-like hyphae with right-angle branching. The cytologic features permitted a diagnosis of a zygomycotic infection which was confirmed by histologic examination. Despite appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient expired. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of gastric zygomycosis diagnosed by brushing cytology. We believe that gastric brushing cytology allows for rapid diagnosis of zygomycotic mycoses, due to the distinctive morphology of these organisms; however, histologic examination is still required for assessment of invasion.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = zygomycosis
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6/45. Disseminated zygomycosis simulating cerebrovascular disease and pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be complicated with serious cerebrovascular accidents and pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage. The authors report an autopsy-proven angioinvasive zygomycosis in a patient with SLE. The clinical features of systemic zygomycosis in this patient masqueraded as SLE-related stroke and pulmonary haemorrhage. The case demonstrates that the simultaneous occurrence of complications that clinically suggest pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple brain infarcts in SLE patients should include the rare disseminated zygomycosis in the differential diagnosis.
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7/45. Basidiobolus ranarum as an etiologic agent of gastrointestinal zygomycosis.

    Basidiobolus ranarum is a known cause of subcutaneous zygomycosis. Recently, its etiologic role in gastrointestinal infections has been increasingly recognized. While the clinical presentation of the subcutaneous disease is quite characteristic and the disease is easy to diagnose, gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis poses diagnostic difficulties; its clinical presentation is nonspecific, there are no identifiable risk factors, and all age groups are susceptible. The case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis described in the present report occurred in a 41-year-old Indian male who had a history of repair of a left inguinal hernia 2 years earlier and who is native to the southern part of india, where the subcutaneous form of the disease is indigenous. diagnosis is based on the isolation of B. ranarum from cultures of urine and demonstration of broad, sparsely septate hyphal elements in histopathologic sections of the colon, with characteristic eosinophilic infiltration and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. The titers of both immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgM antibodies to locally produced antigen of the fungus were elevated. The patient failed to respond to 8 weeks of amphotericin b therapy, and the isolate was later found to be resistant to amphotericin b, itraconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine but susceptible to ketoconazole and miconazole. One other noteworthy feature of the fungus was that the patient's serum showed raised levels of Th2-type cytokines (interleukins 4 and 10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The present report underscores the need to consider gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases and suggests that, perhaps, more time should be invested in developing standardized serologic reagents that can be used as part of a less invasive means of diagnosis of the disease.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = zygomycosis
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8/45. Case report. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis.

    A case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis treated with liposomal amphotericin b is described.
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keywords = zygomycosis
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9/45. Entomophthoramycosis by conidiobolus coronatus. Report of a case successfully treated with the combination of itraconazole and fluconazole.

    Rhinoentomophthoramycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus in a 61-year old woman was unsuccessfully treated during 8 years with all the antifungals available in the Brazilian market, including potassium iodide for 1 month, sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim for 2 months, amphotericin b, total dose of 1130 mg, cetoconazole, 400 mg/day for 6 months, fluconazole, 200 mg/day, for at least 2 months and, itraconazole, 400 mg/day for 2 months, followed by 200 mg/day for 4 more months. Complete clinical and mycological cure was achieved using itraconazol 400 mg/day in association with fluconazol 200 mg/day during 24 months. After cure she was submitted to plastic surgery to repair her facial deformation. Today she remains clinically and mycologically cured after 59/60 months (5 years!) without any specific antifungal. We thus suggest the use of the combination of itraconazole and fluconazole as an additional option for the treatment of this mycosis.
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ranking = 0.10366191532018
keywords = entomophthoramycosis
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10/45. Successful treatment of rhinocerebral zygomycosis using liposomal nystatin.

    We describe a case of successful treatment of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with multiple myeloma. Therapeutic strategies used included liposomal amphotericin, hyperbaric oxygen, GM-CSF and liposomal nystatin.
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keywords = zygomycosis
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