Cases reported "Zygomycosis"

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1/64. Disseminated zygomycosis due to rhizopus schipperae after heatstroke.

    A 21-year-old woman suffered heatstroke and developed diarrhea while trekking across south texas. The heatstroke was complicated by seizures, rhabdomyolysis, pneumonia, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient's stool and blood cultures grew campylobacter jejuni. The patient subsequently developed paranasal and gastrointestinal zygomycosis and required surgical debridement and a prolonged course of amphotericin b. The zygomycete cultured was rhizopus schipperae. This is only the second isolate of R. schipperae that has been described. R. schipperae is characterized by the production of clusters of up to 10 sporangiophores arising from simple but well-developed rhizoids. These asexual reproductive propagules are produced on Czapek Dox agar but are absent on routine mycology media, where only chlamydospores are observed. Despite multiorgan failure, bacteremia, and disseminated zygomycosis, the patient survived and had a good neurological outcome. Heatstroke has not been previously described as a risk factor for the development of disseminated zygomycosis. ( info)

2/64. Mohs micrographic surgery for fungal soft tissue infections.

    BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections of the integument are relatively rare. In the immunocompromised patient, however, they may show an extremely aggressive biological behavior despite high dosed topical or systemic antifungal therapy. As the fungal tissue invasion usually reaches well beyond the area of clinical necrosis or other visible changes, standard surgical excision often proves to be inadequate, resulting in the need for repeated relatively wide excisions with the resulting substantial loss of initially healthy tissues. OBJECTIVE: To present the use of mohs surgery as a safe and effective treatment modality for invasive fungal infections in a patient with a zygomycetes infection of his scalp. RESULTS: The micrographic excision of the highly aggressive fungal infection, the acute postoperative course, and the delayed reconstruction with a split-thickness skin graft were all well tolerated without complications. CONCLUSION: Mohs micrographic excision deserves serious consideration in the treatment of aggressive localized fungal infections. ( info)

3/64. Gastrointestinal zygomycotic infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: case report and review.

    Basidiobolus species are filamentous fungi belonging to the order entomophthorales. Unlike other zygomycetes, Basidiobolus species have been mainly associated with a tropical form of subcutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals. Visceral disease caused by this pathogen is rare, but cases of gastrointestinal infection with Basidiobolus ranarum have been reported worldwide. In many of these reports, the inflammatory disease of the colon has been confused with Crohn's disease. We report the third case of B. ranarum gastrointestinal infection in the united states, which was initially treated as inflammatory bowel disease. ( info)

4/64. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis. Morphologic findings in a cluster of six cases.

    We describe the histopathologic features of 6 cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis examined at 4 Phoenix, AZ, area hospitals during the last 4 years. Resected stomach and intestinal specimens were characterized by marked mural thickening with fibrosis, prominent tissue eosinophil infiltration and palisading granulomatous inflammation around pale fungal hyphae. In 2 cases, there was colonic perforation. Basidiobolus ranarum hyphae (associated with spore-like spherules in 4 cases) were identified within tissue sections; the irregularly branched, thin-walled, occasionally septated hyphae were typically surrounded by a thick eosinophilic cuff (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon). Although the histologic features of B ranarum are well described in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal involvement has presented considerable diagnostic difficulty. Before the occurrence of this cluster of cases, intra-abdominal B ranarum infection has been reported only rarely. ( info)

5/64. Case report. Localized pulmonary zygomycosis without pre-existing immunocompromised status.

    Pulmonary zygomycosis rarely occurs without pre-existing immunocompromised disease. A 72-year-old male was found to have a nodular shadow (3 cm x 4 cm) in the right S8 and S9 on a chest X-ray. Right lower lobectomy was performed and histological examination of the resected material demonstrated pulmonary zygomycosis. hyphae stained positively not only with Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver staining, but also with an anti-rhizopus oryzae polyclonal antibody. ( info)

6/64. Therapeutic experience with fluconazole in the treatment of fungal infections in diabetic patients.

    diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher incidence of certain infections, including fungal infections like rhinocerebral zygomycosis (RCZ) and cutaneous candidosis. As the pathophysiology of increased susceptibility to infection of diabetic patients is very complex, a general therapeutic approach is not existing yet. Appropriate diabetes control remains as the best preventive measure. Nevertheless, effective drug therapy is very often required. fluconazole has proven efficacy in prophylaxis, treatment and suppressive therapy of both systemic and superficial fungal infections, especially in candidosis and cryptococcosis. Therefore it is used routinely against fungal infections in diabetes (FID). Clinical efficacy of fluconazole against cutaneous candidosis, oropharyngeal candidosis (OPC) and vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) has been confirmed in more than 100 studies, involving more than 10,000 patients (pts). The overall success rate is 90%, with a mean dosage of 100-200 mg/d. In severe cases, e.g. in OPC in late-stage AIDS pts or in recurrent VVC, higher dosages of up to 800 mg/d may be required. In the treatment of RCZ, therapeutic experience with fluconazole is limited. Four diabetic pts have been treated with dosages of 200-300 mg/d and all of them recovered. Nevertheless, treatment of RCZ should include surgical debridement combined with aggressive antifungal therapy. In conclusion, proven efficacy and the excellent safety profile justify the routine use of fluconazole in the treatment of FID. ( info)

7/64. Entomophthoromycosis of the nose and paranasal sinus.

    A case of entomophthoromycosis of the nose and paranasal sinus is presented. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with this infection. Though the clinical picture mimicked a malignancy, histopathology clinched the diagnosis of entomophthoromycosis. The lesions resolved completely with oral potassium iodide. ( info)

8/64. Gastric zygomycosis diagnosed by brushing cytology.

    A 66-yr-old man with a history of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. After passing black stools, he underwent upper endoscopy which showed gastric ulceration. A gastric brushing was performed which showed numerous nonseptate, ribbon-like hyphae with right-angle branching. The cytologic features permitted a diagnosis of a zygomycotic infection which was confirmed by histologic examination. Despite appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient expired. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of gastric zygomycosis diagnosed by brushing cytology. We believe that gastric brushing cytology allows for rapid diagnosis of zygomycotic mycoses, due to the distinctive morphology of these organisms; however, histologic examination is still required for assessment of invasion. ( info)

9/64. Disseminated zygomycosis simulating cerebrovascular disease and pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be complicated with serious cerebrovascular accidents and pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage. The authors report an autopsy-proven angioinvasive zygomycosis in a patient with SLE. The clinical features of systemic zygomycosis in this patient masqueraded as SLE-related stroke and pulmonary haemorrhage. The case demonstrates that the simultaneous occurrence of complications that clinically suggest pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple brain infarcts in SLE patients should include the rare disseminated zygomycosis in the differential diagnosis. ( info)

10/64. zygomycosis in relapsed acute leukaemia.

    We would like to report the use of liposomal amphotericin in eradicating mucormycosis in two patients who had relapsed acute leukaemia. The first patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia developed a rapidly expanding solitary necrotic neck lesion associated with opacity of maxilliary sinus at a time when he was profoundly pancytopenic following high dose chemotherapy. The second patient was a 3-year-old boy with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed a central nervous system relapse whilst on his first line treatment and was treated with more aggressive chemotherapy on the Medical research Council Relapse Protocol. During a period of profound pancytopenia following re-induction therapy, including high dose steroids and prolonged course of antibiotics for proven septicaemia, he developed periorbital swelling and proptosis and a clinical diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis was made. Both patients were treated with high doses of liposomal amphotericin (Ambisome Nexstar). The doses were escalated to 10 and 15 mg/kg/day, resulting in successful eradication of the mucormycosis. ( info)
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