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1/3022. thrombotic microangiopathies and hiv infection: report of two typical cases, features of HUS and TTP, and review of the literature.

    Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are thrombotic microangiopathies increasingly reported in patients with hiv infection. However, characteristic features of thrombotic microangiopathies associated with hiv disease have not been defined yet. The typical courses of HUS and TTP in two patients are presented. The data as well as the analysis of cases published in the literature demonstrate the association of thrombotic microangiopathies with late-stage hiv disease. Moreover, differences between HUS and TTP can be detected. patients with HUS present with more severe immunologic deterioration. Although clinical symptoms are fewer, HUS implicates a very poor prognosis. life expectancy rarely exceeded 1 year after diagnosis. HUS and TTP should therefore be added to the international AIDS classification. ( info)

2/3022. Pseudogaucher cells in cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection: report of a case.

    We report on a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and with cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulare, in whom many cells with abundant reticulated cytoplasm resembling the characteristic cells of Gauchers disease ("pseudogaucher cells") were noted within the dermal infiltrate on biopsy. Although pseudogaucher cells have been reported in association with M. avium intracellulare infection in extracutaneous sites, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of cutaneous pseudogaucher cells in the skin. ( info)

3/3022. Laryngeal pathology in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced a growing population of patients who, because of their associated immune system compromise, are prone to opportunistic infections and neoplastic diseases. The larynx, with its relatively inaccessible yet critical anatomic location, is a site in which these processes can produce clinical dilemmas, with respect to diagnosis as well as to therapy. By presenting 4 cases involving unusual laryngeal problems in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), we emphasize these inherent diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Otolaryngologists must be familiar with the many diagnostic possibilities and therapeutic alternatives when hiv-infected patients present with laryngeal complaints. ( info)

4/3022. arthritis due to mycobacterium fortuitum.

    mycobacterium fortuitum is classified as a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) according to the Runyon classification. RGM are increasingly being recognized as human pathogens. Joint infection due to M. fortuitum is a rare, but serious disease. This report describes a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and septic arthritis of the knee due to M. fortuitum in a previously normal joint with no history of surgery or intra-articular injections. ( info)

5/3022. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome as an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome is a recently recognized variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, developing in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other conditions causing immune compromise. We report a case in which the diagnosis of retinal necrosis syndrome was made before the diagnosis of AIDS was confirmed. A 41-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of blurred vision in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed extensive retinal necrosis with total retinal detachment in his left eye and multifocal deep retinal lesions scattered in the posterior fundus as well as in the peripheral retina in his right eye. The serologic test for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) was positive. Despite intravenous acyclovir treatment for 1 week, the lesions in the right eye showed rapid progression. High doses of intravitreal ganciclovir were then given in addition to intravenous acyclovir. After combined treatment for 1 month, the lesions became quiescent and the visual acuity improved to 20/30. Although the patient soon developed full-blown AIDS, the vision in his right eye remained undisturbed. physicians should suspect progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome in any patient with rapidly progressive necrotizing retinopathy and test the patient for hiv infection. Aggressive combined antiviral agent therapy should be considered to save vision. ( info)

6/3022. acitretin and AIDS-related Reiter's disease.

    A patient with AIDS presented with Reiter's syndrome. arthritis and skin lesions responded poorly to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and topical corticosteroid therapy. Dramatic improvement was seen 2 weeks after acitretine was added. When Reiter's syndrome recurred 11 months later despite treatment with highly active anti-retroviral drugs and an undetectable plasmatic viral load, acitretin without NSAID or topical treatment was again administered and was rapidly effective. ( info)

7/3022. Pulmonary malacoplakia associated with rhodococcus equi infection in a patient with AIDS.

    An AIDS patient with a cavitary lung lesion was found to have pulmonary malacoplakia associated with rhodococcus equi infection. The diagnosis was based on the typical histologic features of transbronchial biopsy and a positive bacterial culture. All 13 reported cases of AIDS patients with pulmonary malacoplakia were associated with R equi. The recognition of this unique entity is important because of its responsiveness to therapy. ( info)

8/3022. Rapid and definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases using peripheral blood smears.

    A timely diagnosis is essential in the management of septicemia and septic shock. Three patients are described, all of whom presented with fever and one of whom was hypotensive at the time of admission. In each patient, rapid diagnosis of the cause of fever was possible because microorganisms were identified on a peripheral blood smear obtained at the time of admission. This identification permitted prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. In addition, a literature review of use of peripheral blood smears in the diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections is provided. ( info)

9/3022. Apparent hemolysis in an AIDS patient receiving trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole: case report and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of acute hemolysis associated temporally with administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in a patient with AIDS, review the available literature on TMP/SMX-induced hemolytic anemia, and discuss possible drug- and disease-related factors that may have contributed to the episode of hemolysis. CASE SUMMARY: A precipitous decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit occurred shortly after a black woman with AIDS received a single intravenous dose of TMP/SMX for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Following drug discontinuation and repeated transfusions, the patient's hematologic indices returned to baseline. literature SOURCES: References were obtained using medline searches, the bibliographies of articles identified during the searches, review articles, and standard textbooks. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the two different mechanisms of TMP/SMX-induced hemolytic anemia, the reaction is most likely to occur via dose-related oxidative disruption of the erythrocyte membrane in subpopulations deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. In the US, G6PD deficiency most frequently is encountered among blacks. The potential for hemolysis may be further increased in G6PD-deficient AIDS patients, who also appear to lack adequate intracellular glutathione, which is essential for protecting the erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage. Although an assay for G6PD activity was not conducted, the case circumstances were consistent with TMP/SMX-induced hemolysis in a G6PD-deficient patient. CONCLUSIONS: Black patients with AIDS who are receiving relatively high (greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg/d) dosages of TMP/SMX should be monitored closely for signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia. ( info)

10/3022. Suggestions for improving AIDS treatment in hospitals.

    On July 26, 1994, John William George Swaffer died of AIDS in an Ottawa hospital. His partner shares his experience while caring for John at the hospital. While the hospital did many things well, it seemed that requests for palliative care were poorly communicated among the various physicians involved with John's care. Coordination between hospital doctors and those from a local hiv clinic also seemed poor. The author recommends eight changes to better serve patients with AIDS and other terminal illnesses. ( info)
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