Cases reported "Acromegaly"

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1/480. Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly.

    Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and kleine-levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear. ( info)

2/480. acromegaly in a family without a mutation in the menin gene.

    Familial pituitary tumors are rare. Only 45 cases in 20 families with acromegaly have been reported. A third of the cases (30%) is related to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men 1). We report two cases of acromegaly in one family with pituitary macroadenomas. A 46-year-old woman with elevated serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and a failure to supress GH in the glucose tolerance test underwent transsphenoidal surgery 4 years ago. Three years later her 24-year-old son also presented with typical signs of acromegaly. A pituitary macroadenoma was identified by MRT and he also underwent transsphenoidal surgery. There were no symptoms of McCune-Albright syndrome or other forms of endocrine hyperfunction in the two patients. In an attempt to identify the molecular etiology of the tumours dna was extracted from paraffin fixed tissue from both patients. Exon 7 to 13 of the Gsp-protein and exons 1 to 10 of the menin gene were amplified by PCR. Although Gsp mutations have been identified in 40% of somatotroph tumors, direct sequencing of the PCR products showed no mutations in exons 7 to 13 of Gs alpha. Moreover no mutations were found in exons 1 to 10 of the menin gene. Therefore, molecular causes other than Gsp or menin gene mutations have to be considered as the molecular etiology of acromegaly in this family. ( info)

3/480. acromegaly: report of two patients with an unusual presentation.

    The presenting features of functionally active pituitary tumours depend on the specific hormone which is overproduced. growth hormone (GH) producing tumours usually present with the clinical manifestations of acromegaly due to excessive GH secretion or symptoms resulting from mass effects of the enlarging tumour. The changes in physical features and the increase in tumour size are usually insidiously slow and therefore, recognition of the disease is delayed. In this report two patients with acromegaly are described with an atypical presentation due to acute onset of symptoms. The first patient presented with central diabetes insipidus. The diagnosis acromegaly was made on physical examination. The second patient presented with a generalized seizure during sleep. On CT-scanning a large tumour protruding into the left temporal lobe connected to the pituitary gland was seen. immunohistochemistry of the tumour after partial transcranial resection confirmed the clinical diagnosis of acromegaly. At a later stage transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary tumour was performed with full recovery and without loss of pituitary function. ( info)

4/480. Insulin-mediated pseudoacromegaly in a patient with severe insulin resistance: association of defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport with impaired phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in fibroblasts.

    The purpose of this study was to clinically and biochemically describe an insulin resistant patient with insulin-mediated pseudoacromegaly and in addition, to examine the molecular cause responsible for the defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in cultured fibroblasts derived from the patient. The patient was a 64 year old female with severe insulin resistant diabetes mellitus, requiring up to 200 U insulin per day, associated with typical acromegaloid characteristics including increased hand and foot size, macroglossia and development of coarse facial features. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging as well as multiple GH and IGF-1 measurements were normal. In cultured fibroblasts derived from the patient, (i) insulin-stimulated glucose transport, (ii) the subcellular distribution of GLUT1 glucose transporters, (iii) insulin-stimulated IRS-1-immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity, as well as (iv) protein expression of the small GTP-binding protein Rab4 was determined. The results indicate, that insulin's ability to stimulate glucose transport is defective in the patients fibroblasts although the GLUT1 content in the plasma membrane was increased by 34% when compared to control cells. Furthermore, the IRS-1 dependent activation of PI 3-kinase was reduced by 39.6% after incubation with 10 nM insulin for 5 min. Interestingly, immunodetection of the small GTP-binding protein Rab4, which is believed to be involved in the regulation of glucose transporter vesicle targeting to the plasma membrane, revealed a marked reduction of the expression of Rab4 protein in a total membrane fraction by 57.4%. In conclusion, in fibroblasts of a patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of pseudoacromegaly, the defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport was associated with impaired insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity, which may contribute to the severe insulin resistant state of this patient. ( info)

5/480. Effect of pituitary microsurgery on acromegaly complicated nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: report of a rare clinical case.

    A case of nephrotic syndrome complicated by acromegaly is presented. The first renal biopsy specimen showed minor glomerular abnormalities with glomerular hypertrophy, corresponding with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Corticosteroid therapy led to a partial remission, followed by frequent relapses after reduction of the drug. A diagnosis of atypical focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was made based on the second renal biopsy results 6 months after the first. We combined steroid therapy with the administration of an anticoagulant, cytotoxic agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and low-density lipoprotein adsorption. Except for the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, these medications were not effective in terms of allowing a reduction in the high dosage of steroid, which in turn threatened progressive osteoporosis and lumbar vertebrae fracture. Administering the steroid at a moderate dosage, treatment was focused on the complicating acromegaly from pituitary microadenoma. Subcutaneous injections of octreotide acetate, a somatostatin analogue, reduced proteinuria and increased urine volume. Subsequent transsphenoidal microsurgery of the adenoma resulted in the normalization of the elevated creatinine clearance and the further reduction in steroid dosage while maintaining a remission state. This is the first reported clinical case with acromegaly followed by FSGS, and it is suggested that hypersecretion of growth hormone participates in the development and progression of glomerular disease. ( info)

6/480. Management and treatment of patients with acromegaly.

    Untreated acromegaly causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and results in a marked reduction in quality of life. For this reason, the treatment goals need to be well defined and therapy optimised. This article describes the clinical approach to acromegaly, including: Pathophysiology of growth hormone secretion; Clinical features; Biochemical and radiological diagnosis; Treatment goals and therapeutic options; prognosis. ( info)

7/480. Successful pregnancy in a woman with acromegaly treated with somatostatin analog (octreotide) prior to surgical resection.

    A 27-year-old woman with a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma was treated with continuous s.c. infusion of octreotide prior to surgical resection. Subsequently, she was found to be 6 months pregnant. Fetal echographs were normal, the newborn had no malformation, and postnatal development was normal. ( info)

8/480. An acromegalic patient with pulsatile secretion of growth hormone (GH) coincident with the slow-wave sleep.

    A 43-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further treatment of acromegaly with high plasma GH and IGF-I levels after transsphenoidal adenomectomy and subsequent treatment with bromocriptine. physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an active acromegalic appearance with residual pituitary macroadenoma. Laboratory findings revealed an increase in basal levels of plasma GH (21.3 microg/L) and plasma IGF-I (470 ng/ml). plasma GH levels were suppressed from 21.3 microg/L to 9.9 microg/L following oral administration of 75 glucose and did not respond to either TRH or LHRH injection. When plasma GH levels were measured after repeated blood sampling every 20 min for 24 h and sleep stages were analyzed, there were three GH peaks during the night which corresponded to the slow-wave sleep. Mean plasma GH levels which corresponded to the slow-wave sleep stages were much greater than those of other sleep stages during the night. After the patient was treated with intermittent sc injections of octreotide (40 microg/every 2 h, 480 microg/day) in combination with oral administration of bromocriptine (15 mg/day, t.i.d.), episodic GH release was somewhat suppressed but plasma GH levels were slightly increased, corresponding to the slow-wave sleep stage during the night. Mean plasma GH levels were much higher during the sleeping period than the waking period for 24 h before and after the treatment. These findings suggest that GH secretion is correlated to the slow-wave sleep in this particular patient with pituitary GH producing adenoma. ( info)

9/480. A rare case of acromegaly associated with pachydermoperiostosis.

    Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is a rare syndrome manifested clinically by finger clubbing, extremity enlargement, hypertrophic skin changes, and periosteal bone formation. The pathogenesis of the disorder has not been clarified and few endocrine abnormalities were apparent. We report here a 58-year-old man with acromegaly associated with PDP, the features of clubbed fingers, coarse skin, and cutis verticis gyrata. acromegaly due to GH-producing pituitary adenoma was confirmed in endocrinological and pathological studies. ( info)

10/480. A case of acromegaly accompanied by adrenal preclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    We encountered a 58-year-old woman with acromegaly accompanied by a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumor without clinical features of hypercortisolism. The simultaneous occurrence of these two endocrinopathies in one individual is extremely rare. She was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus 8 years ago. Afterwards, in spite of insulin therapy, her hyperglycemia could not be well controlled. Her acromegaly and preclinical Cushing's syndrome were histopathologically proven to be due to a pituitary adenoma and an adrenocortical adenoma, respectively. Successful treatment for these endocrinopathies resulted in greatly improved blood sugar control because of a reduction in insulin resistance. In this case of preclinical Cushing's syndrome, replacement therapy with glucocorticoid was able to be discontinued at only 8 weeks after adrenalectomy, so that the period of necessary replacement was much shorter than that for overt Cushing's syndrome. This is the first report describing insulin resistance before and after treatment in a case of acromegaly accompanied by adrenal preclinical Cushing's syndrome. ( info)
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