Cases reported "Adrenal Gland Neoplasms"

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1/2330. The elevated serum alkaline phosphatase--the chase that led to two endocrinopathies and one possible unifying diagnosis.

    A 39-year-old Chinese man with hypertension being evaluated for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) levels was found to have an incidental right adrenal mass. The radiological features were characteristic of a large adrenal myelolipoma. This mass was resected and the diagnosis confirmed pathologically. His blood pressure normalised after removal of the myelolipoma, suggesting that the frequently observed association between myelolipomas and hypertension may not be entirely coincidental. Persistent elevation of the SAP levels and the discovery of hypercalcaemia after surgery led to further investigations which confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. The patient's serum biochemistry normalised after removal of the adenoma. The association of adrenal myelolipoma with primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported in the literature only once previously. Although unconfirmed by genetic studies this association may possibly represent an unusual variation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. ( info)

2/2330. neuroblastoma metastatic to the liver in infants.

    Four infants are described who presented with rapid enlargement of the liver. This was found to be due to neuroblastoma which had metastasized to the liver; the condition was associated with high levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). In 3 infants the primary tumour was in the adrenal gland and in one it was not identified. One infant died after laparotomy and 2 infants survive disease free with normal VMA levels, one after adrenalectomy and hepatic irradiation and one after a short course of chemotherapy. The fourth patient responded initially to hepatic irradiation and chemotherapy, but relapsed 2 years later with recurrent disease; at the same time the VMA level which had been normal, again rose. The importance of screening for an abnormal VMA level in any infant with a rapidly enlarging liver in order to obtain an early diagnosis is stressed. Careful follow-up, with serial VMA estimations, is essential to detect recurrent disease. The prognosis for some infants with this distribution of neuroblastoma which has metastasized to the liver, but not to the bones or oribt, is good. ( info)

3/2330. MR imaging of a case of adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.

    The aim of this case report is to describe the appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an incidentally found adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland, and to evaluate the utility of MRI in characterizing this type of tumor. The appearance of the tumor was nonspecific on T1-weighted in-phase, opposed-phase, and T2-weighted images, as well as its behavior after paramagnetic contrast administration, outlining the differential diagnosis among carcinoma, metastatic tumors, and pheochromocytoma. After surgery, the pathologic diagnosis was adenomatoid benign tumor of mesothelial origin. Although MRI enables the characterization of most benign lesions of the adrenal gland, the appearance of other lesions is nonspecific. In our case, MRI did not assist in preoperative diagnosis, guiding us towards a diagnosis of malignancy. ( info)

4/2330. heart failure induced by pheochromocytoma: laparoscopic treatment and intraoperative changes of several new cardiovascular hormones.

    Since 1992, adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma has been recognized as a safe and efficient technique when performed by a laparoscopic approach. Most of the cases of pheochromocytomas treated as such and published in the literature were not associated with malignant hypertension and acute heart failure. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who presented with this clinical picture and show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy may be as safe and efficient as conventional adrenalectomy when performed in this situation. The intraoperative changes in the secretion of catecholamines, endothelin-1, angiotensin ii, N- and C-terminus of atrial natriuretic factor prohormone were also analyzed. Noradrenaline release during tumor dissection was associated with a stimulation of atrial natriuretic factor. ( info)

5/2330. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of extraadrenal myelolipoma presenting as a pleural mass. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: myelolipoma is a benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic cells. Although they are commonly found in adrenal glands, extraadrenal myelolipomas (EMLs) are rare but well documented. They have been found in various sites, including mediastinum, liver, stomach, lungs, pelvis, spleen, retroperitoneum, presacral region and mesentery. EMLs must be distinguished from extramedullary hematopoieses, which are also composed of hematopoietic elements but may lack adipose tissue and are associated with anemia and marked bone marrow hyperplasia. CASE: We describe a case of a pleura-based, extraadrenal myelolipoma in a 53-year-old female with unremarkable bone marrow findings that were initially encountered on fluoroscopy-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). One year later the mass was removed via open thoracotomy. It showed typical EML features histologically. CONCLUSION: EML manifests on aspiration cytology as a cellular specimen with numerous trilineage hematopoietic cells and a variable proportion of mature adipose cells. To our knowledge, FNA cytology of EML has not been found in this location before. Aspiration biopsy offers a simple and reliable method for the diagnosis of EML in the presence of appropriate clinical settings. ( info)

6/2330. CNS pseudovasculitis in a patient with pheochromocytoma.

    The authors report a patient with angiographic findings resembling CNS vasculitis (CNS pseudovasculitis) who was found to have a pheochromocytoma. The angiographic changes resolved after surgical resection of the pheochromocytoma. pheochromocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of angiographic findings suggestive of CNS vasculitis. ( info)

7/2330. CT diagnosis of tumor thrombosis of the renal vein and inferior vena cava.

    Four cases of tumor thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and renal veins were diagnosed by computed tomography. In two, the thrombus itself was demonstrated within the vascular lumen after intravenous injection of urographic contrast material. The diagnosis was made in the other two patients by identification of massive enlargement of the vascular diameter. ( info)

8/2330. Hypoglycaemia induced by adrenal gland neoplasia (Anderson's syndrome) : report of a case.

    A patient with hypoglycaemia associated with an adrenal neoplasia (Anderson's syndrome) is reported. Endocrinological investigation showed increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines as well as an increased urinary steroid excretion along with profound inhibition of both basal and stimulated insulin secretion. During IVGTT, Conard's coefficient was reduced. The hyperglycemic response to glucagon injection was blunted, suggesting that liver glycogen stores were decreased or unavailable. ( info)

9/2330. Long-term survival after extended surgical resection of melanoma metastasis and immunotherapy.

    A patient with a huge melanoma metastasis to the left adrenal gland was treated by multivisceral surgical resection. Progression of disease could be controlled by systemic immunotherapy resulting in long-term survival. In selected cases, above all with late manifestation of distant melanoma metastases, even major surgical resection of such lesions can be worthwhile. ( info)

10/2330. Management of adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by asynchronous resection of bilateral adrenal glands.

    We report on a 65-year-old man who received asynchronous bilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifteen months after curative resection of right hepatic lobe for hepatocellular carcinoma, a metastatic lesion of the left adrenal gland was detected and left adrenalectomy was performed. Ten months after the second operation, a metastatic lesion in the right adrenal gland, associated with tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava, was revealed. Transcatheter arterial embolization of the arteries feeding the metastatic tumor was performed, but its effects were incomplete. As there was the tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and no other intrahepatic recurrence or extrahepatic metastasis was found, resection of the right adrenal gland with tumor thrombus, without the employment of veno-venous bypass, was performed, followed by postoperative hormonal supplementation. Changes in the patient's alpha-fetoprotein level were clinically useful for the detection of the metastatic lesions and the evaluation of therapeutic effects. Metastasis to adrenal gland from hepatocellular carcinoma should be actively managed, and the appropriate surgical treatment selected, if intrahepatic recurrence and/or other extrahepatic metastasis are controlled. To achieve higher curability and better outcome in patients with bilateral adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma, bilateral total adrenalectomy is indicated, accompanied by effective postoperative hormonal supplementation. ( info)
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