Cases reported "agraphia"

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1/213. Treatment of a case of phonological alexia with agraphia using the Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program.

    Phonological alexia and agraphia are acquired disorders characterized by an impaired ability to convert graphemes to phonemes (alexia) or phonemes to graphemes (agraphia). These disorders result in phonological errors typified by adding, omitting, shifting, or repeating phonemes in words during reading or graphemes when spelling. In developmental dyslexia, similar phonological errors are believed to result from deficient phonological awareness, an oral language skill that manifests itself in the ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual sounds in words. The Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program has been reported to train phonological awareness in developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia. We used a multiple-probe design to evaluate the ADD program's effectiveness with a patient with a mild phonological alexia and mixed agraphia following a left hemisphere infarction. Large gains in phonological awareness, reading and spelling nonwords, and reading and spelling real words were demonstrated. A follow-up reassessment, 2 months posttreatment, found the patient had maintained treatment gains in phonological awareness and reading, and attained additional improvement in real word reading. ( info)

2/213. Pure apraxic agraphia with abnormal writing stroke sequences: report of a Japanese patient with a left superior parietal haemorrhage.

    A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient's complete recovery after 1 month, without new learning, showed that he had manifested a selective disorder of writing stroke sequences. These findings indicate that the final stage of the execution of writing according to acquired sequential memory shown as a stroke sequence can be selectively disturbed, and should be considered to be distinct from the ability of character imagery and the knowledge of the writing stroke sequence itself. This case also indicates that the left superior parietal lobule plays an important part in the execution of writing. ( info)

3/213. Developmental surface dysgraphia: what is the underlying cognitive impairment?

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive causes underlying spelling difficulties in a case of developmental surface dysgraphia, AW. Our results do not support a number of possibilities that could be the cause of AW's poor orthographic lexicon, including difficulties in phonological processing, phonological short-term memory, configurational visual memory, and lexical semantic memory. We have found instead that AW performs poorly in tasks that involve detection of the order of adjacent letters in a word or the order of adjacent units in strings of consonants or symbols. Finally, he performs poorly in tasks that involve reconstructing the order of a series of complex visual characters (Japanese and Hindi characters) especially when these are presented sequentially. We advance the hypothesis that AW's poor spelling and good reading skills stem from an underlying pattern of cognitive abilities where a very good visual configurational memory is coupled with a poor ability to encode serial order. This may have resulted in a holistic word-based reading strategy, which, together with the original problem of encoding order, may have had detrimental effects for the acquisition of spelling. ( info)

4/213. Metabolic abnormalities detected by 1H-MRS in dyscalculia and dysgraphia.

    Proton MRS was performed in a patient with developmental acalculia. The results indicated a focal, wedge-shaped defect in the left temporoparietal brain region near the angular gyrus, with differential decreases in N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, and choline. These results support the hypothesis that developmental acalculia, like acquired acalculia, is associated with left posterior hemisphere lesions. ( info)

5/213. Selective uppercase dysgraphia with loss of visual imagery of letter forms: a window on the organization of graphomotor patterns.

    We report a patient who, after a left parieto-occipital lesion, showed alexia and selective dysgraphia for uppercase letters. He showed preserved oral spelling, associated with handwriting impairment in all written production; spontaneous writing, writing to dictation, real words, pseudowords, and single letters were affected. The great majority of errors were well-formed letter substitutions: most of them were located on the first position of each word, which the patient always wrote in uppercase (as he used to do before his illness). The patient also showed a complete inability to access the visual representation of letters. As demonstrated by a stroke segmentation analysis, letter substitutions followed a rule of graphomotor similarity. We propose that the patient's impairment was at the stage where selection of the specific graphomotor pattern for each letter is made and that the apparent selective disruption of capital case was due to a greater stroke similarity among letters belonging to the same case. We conclude that a visual format is necessary neither for spelling nor for handwriting. ( info)

6/213. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome: a distinct clinical entity of learning disabilities.

    The symptom complex of finger anomia, right-left disorientation, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia constitutes Gerstmann's syndrome. It is mostly described in adults and is caused by acquired lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. It is infrequently described in children with learning disabilities and has been designated developmental Gerstmann's syndrome. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome goes unnoticed if not specifically sought by clinicians. A detailed evaluation will reveal subtle neurologic deficits, behavioral problems, and neuropsychologic and specific speech and language abnormalities. Ten such patients are reported; six of the children demonstrated improvement with intensive speech training. Early identification and intervention is therefore crucial, and even more important in cultures in which students are required to be biliterate or triliterate, further increasing the constraints on writing. A selective writing, reading, or calculation abnormality in the presence of normal oral communication triggers several interesting possibilities for the brain mechanisms behind normal language processing. Similarly, the association of acalculia with finger anomia and agraphia with right-left disorientation may have specific implications in the neuropsychologic processing of the evolution of calculation and writing. A theoretical possibility of oral and written language processing from the observation of the language behavior of these children is also described. ( info)

7/213. Chronological progression of a language deficit appearing to be postictally reversible in a patient with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy.

    A language deficit occurring interictally, with chronological progression, and postictally in a patient with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy, which began at 1.6 years of age, is reported. The patient was a 30-year-old right-handed man whose seizures seemed to originate from the left frontal lobe and to involve the left temporal lobe. The deficit in oral language consisted mainly of features of motor aphasia, including delayed initiation of speech with great effort, echolalic and palilalic tendencies, and word-finding difficulty, but he also showed features of sensory aphasia. Written language had agraphia observed in sensory aphasia, including well-formed letters, paraphasias, neologisms, and paragrammatism. Postictally, the language deficit appeared to be superficially reversible, and evolved from mutism through non-fluent jargon to the interictal level of language. Analysis of the patient's diaries from 10 to 26 years of age disclosed chronologically progressive deterioration of language with paragrammatism, showing an increase of grammatical errors, neologismus, literal and verbal paraphasias and misconstruction of sentences. The results suggest that localization-related epilepsy of presumably left frontal lobe origin causes not only a postictal language deficit but also a slowly progressive deficit of language function. ( info)

8/213. Apraxic agraphia due to thalamic infarction.

    The authors report a patient of pure apraxic agraphia with normal praxis due to left thalamic infarction. 15O-gas-PET showed reduced oxygen metabolism in the left thalamus and the left dorsolateral premotor area, while MRI and 11C-fulumazenil-PET showed no remarkable lesions in the frontal cortex. The patient's word imaging remained normal. The authors hypothesize that thalamic destruction causes pure apraxic agraphia by exerting a remote effect on left dorsolateral premotor area and blocking somewhere between graphemic area and motor programming. ( info)

9/213. Dissociation between distal and proximal left limb agraphia and agraphesthesia in a patient with a callosal disconnection syndrome.

    A few neuropsychological studies have suggested the existence of bilateral hemispheric representations for the proximal parts of the limbs in humans. We report the case of a patient who presented with a callosal disconnection syndrome, which at a later stage of disease became restricted to left agraphia, left agraphesthesia and left auditory extinction. The anomic character of the agraphesthesia was demonstrated. Tactile naming was normal, which allows us to conclude that separate callosal pathways related to the left language areas transmit information for graphesthesia and tactile naming. agraphia and agraphesthesia were not observed when the proximal part of the left upper limb was utilized. These observations support the conclusion that writing and graphesthesia with the proximal part of the limb can be mediated by the ipsilateral cortex. ( info)

10/213. Dissociation of pure korean words and Chinese-derivative words in phonological dysgraphia.

    Phonological dysgraphia is a writing impairment, characterized by marked disability to spell pronounceable pseudo-words as opposed to relatively mild reduction in ability to spell real words. Within the realm of Korean vocabulary, there are two categories of real words: pure Korean words and Chinese-derivative words. We present a patient with a history of CVA, resulting in phonological dysgraphia and, further, a dissociated performance in the aforementioned two categories of real words. It is suggested that the lexicon for pure Korean words is segregated from that for Chinese-derivative words. ( info)
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