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1/207. Heteropolymerization of S, I, and Z alpha1-antitrypsin and liver cirrhosis.

    The association between Z alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and juvenile cirrhosis is well-recognized, and there is now convincing evidence that the hepatic inclusions are the result of entangled polymers of mutant Z alpha1-antitrypsin. Four percent of the northern European Caucasian population are heterozygotes for the Z variant, but even more common is S alpha1-antitrypsin, which is found in up to 28% of southern Europeans. The S variant is known to have an increased susceptibility to polymerization, although this is marginal compared with the more conformationally unstable Z variant. There has been speculation that the two may interact to produce cirrhosis, but this has never been demonstrated experimentally. This hypothesis was raised again by the observation reported here of a mixed heterozygote for Z alpha1-antitrypsin and another conformationally unstable variant (I alpha1-antitrypsin; 39Arg-->Cys) identified in a 34-year-old man with cirrhosis related to alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. The conformational stability of the I variant has been characterized, and we have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to demonstrate the formation of heteropolymers between S and Z alpha1-antitrypsin. Taken together, these results indicate that not only may mixed variants form heteropolymers, but that this can causally lead to the development of cirrhosis.
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2/207. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and toxic shock: a Japanese autopsy case.

    A 74-year-old Japanese female presented with the sudden appearance of hemorrhagic purpuric ecchymoses on her lower extremities and with fever and chills, and died on the fifth day of hospitalization. A diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency was made postmortem. The liver weighed 1260 g. Histological sections from the liver revealed rather severe fatty changes of the hepatocytic parenchyma and partial loss of the normal hepatic architecture with fibrosis. The hepatocytes contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant and alpha1-AT-positive intracytoplasmic globules. There was markedly increased inflammatory infiltration with severe edema and congestion, accompanied by fibrous, thickened pulmonary alveolar walls with fibrin deposition in the lungs (right, 410 g; left, 280 g), which suggest findings similar to those seen in multiple organ failure. Mild pulmonary emphysema was also present in the upper lobes of the lungs. Histological sections from the hemorrhagic necrotic ecchymoses of the skin showed marked neutrophil infiltration over the subcutaneous tissue with bleeding and blistering. A finding of thrombophlebitis was also found in the subcutaneous tissue. No bacteria were detected in the ecchymoses, the urine or the blood. plasma protein analysis revealed a lower level (9.5 micromol/L) of alpha1-AT and a higher level (330 U) of anti-streptolysin O (ASO). These findings suggest that the patient died of toxic shock-like syndrome and that alpha1-AT deficiency might have facilitated the development of the toxic shock. To our knowledge, this is the first case of toxic shock associated with alpha1-AT deficiency.
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3/207. Wegener's granulomatosis and alpha1-antitrypsin-deficiency emphysema: proteinase-related diseases.

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT)-deficiency emphysema are both uncommon disorders. A relationship may exist between these diseases involving the proteinase and antiproteinase balance in the lung. A case is presented of WG and alpha1-AT-deficiency emphysema occurring in the same patient. Previous studies concerning the correlation between abnormal alpha1-AT alleles and WG are discussed. Potential mechanisms for the relationship and recommendations for screening are given.
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4/207. Severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and pregnancy.

    This case study describes a successful pregnancy in a 27-yr-old patient with severe emphysema, secondary to alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, genotype PiZZ. Despite significant respiratory compromise, more severe than previously reported, no complications ensued. Maternal pulmonary function did not deteriorate significantly until the 32nd week of pregnancy, with an elective Caesarean section being performed during the 37th week. This experience suggests that even severe maternal airflow obstruction is, in itself, not an absolute contra-indication to pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy multidisciplinary counselling is likely to be helpful in these patients, including frank discussion on the risks of pregnancy, the prospects of successful completion and the mother's future prognosis in relation to caring for the child.
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5/207. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to cytomegalovirus infection in a Japanese patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient emphysema.

    Although alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary diseases and a recognized cause of emphysema in Caucasians, variants of this deficiency are extremely rare among Orientals. We present here a Japanese emphysema patient with the AAT deficiency variant originally identified as S(iiyama). After an 8-year follow-up period, the patient suffered from repeated pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infection for 4 years. He died suddenly of massive pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic examination revealed a necrotic hematoma in the right S10 lobe, which exhibited pneumonia due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Pulmonary hemorrhage due to CMV can occur and be fatal in patients with emphysema and AAT deficiency.
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6/207. panniculitis revealing qualitative alpha 1 antitrypsine deficiency (MS variant).

    A 16-year-old girl presented painful, red, nodular lesions on the abdomen. A cutaneous biopsy showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and fibrosis in the dermis and in the septa with isolated adipocyte lobules. alpha1-antitrypsin level was found to be normal but M1S phenotype of alpha1-antitrypsin was determined by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel. alpha1-antitrypsin level was normal for her family but M2S phenotype was found in her father. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha1 AT) deficiency is a common hereditary disorder of Caucasians. The locus is pleiomorphic and 75 alleles have been identified. Numerous pathological mutations can be classified by the mechanisms which cause the deficiency. The major clinical importance of this deficiency is emphysema and liver disease. panniculitis is rarely reported and seems to occur principally for the ZZ or MZ phenotype and for low levels of alpha1 AT. MS phenotype has been more rarely reported and triggering agents such as trauma and infections must be present. However, normal levels of alpha1 AT in the serum have previously been reported as in our case, and we suggest the study of alpha1 AT phenotype even if the plasma level is normal.
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ranking = 3.5
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7/207. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency with fatal intracranial hemorrhage in a newborn.

    A 4-week-old boy had a fatal intracranial hemorrhage resulting from vitamin k deficiency. The infant had received no vitamin K prophylaxis and was exclusively breastfed. At autopsy, examination of the liver showed cholestasis and fibrosis. dna was isolated from a blood spot on a Gutherie sample card obtained from the infant for routine metabolic screening. This dna was used for alpha1-antitrypsin genotyping studies. Genotyping studies identified homozygosity for the point mutation 9989G-->A, confirming a diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ phenotype), and resulted in appropriate screening of siblings born after this child's death. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants with late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Use of blood from the metabolic screening card as a source of dna allowed confirmation of this diagnosis after the infant's death.
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ranking = 3.5
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8/207. liver transplantation in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Only a minority of infants born with alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency will develop serious liver disease during childhood, mostly but not always after neonatal cholestasis. Early prognosis is difficult and all children have to be followed up carefully. The liver disease progresses with varying speed and it lacks specific features. At the time of liver transplantation the young patients have no pulmonary disease induced by the deficiency and in those with renal involvement, the kidney problems can mostly be dealt with by conservative therapy. The peri- and postoperative care of the patients who undergo liver transplantation does not differ from the usual routines.
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ranking = 3
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9/207. Redo lung volume reduction surgery in a patient with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    lung volume reduction surgery is a palliative procedure that improves dyspnea and pulmonary function in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Postoperative benefit is sustained for an individual period and depends on the emphysema morphology, the surgical technique, and other not yet well-defined factors. The question whether lung volume reduction surgery can be performed a second time on the same thoracic cavity is often raised but experience in this regard is lacking. We describe a patient who has undergone a successful redo operation 2 years after the initial lung volume reduction surgery.
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ranking = 2
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10/207. Spontaneous pneumothorax and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Spontaneous pneumothorax has been observed in patients with abnormal levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin. We report the case of a young woman with a low level of alpha 1-antitrypsin who presented with recurrent episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax and who required pleuroscopy, apical lung resection, and pleurodesis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = deficiency
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