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1/73. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and toxic shock: a Japanese autopsy case.

    A 74-year-old Japanese female presented with the sudden appearance of hemorrhagic purpuric ecchymoses on her lower extremities and with fever and chills, and died on the fifth day of hospitalization. A diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency was made postmortem. The liver weighed 1260 g. Histological sections from the liver revealed rather severe fatty changes of the hepatocytic parenchyma and partial loss of the normal hepatic architecture with fibrosis. The hepatocytes contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant and alpha1-AT-positive intracytoplasmic globules. There was markedly increased inflammatory infiltration with severe edema and congestion, accompanied by fibrous, thickened pulmonary alveolar walls with fibrin deposition in the lungs (right, 410 g; left, 280 g), which suggest findings similar to those seen in multiple organ failure. Mild pulmonary emphysema was also present in the upper lobes of the lungs. Histological sections from the hemorrhagic necrotic ecchymoses of the skin showed marked neutrophil infiltration over the subcutaneous tissue with bleeding and blistering. A finding of thrombophlebitis was also found in the subcutaneous tissue. No bacteria were detected in the ecchymoses, the urine or the blood. plasma protein analysis revealed a lower level (9.5 micromol/L) of alpha1-AT and a higher level (330 U) of anti-streptolysin O (ASO). These findings suggest that the patient died of toxic shock-like syndrome and that alpha1-AT deficiency might have facilitated the development of the toxic shock. To our knowledge, this is the first case of toxic shock associated with alpha1-AT deficiency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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2/73. Wegener's granulomatosis and alpha1-antitrypsin-deficiency emphysema: proteinase-related diseases.

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT)-deficiency emphysema are both uncommon disorders. A relationship may exist between these diseases involving the proteinase and antiproteinase balance in the lung. A case is presented of WG and alpha1-AT-deficiency emphysema occurring in the same patient. Previous studies concerning the correlation between abnormal alpha1-AT alleles and WG are discussed. Potential mechanisms for the relationship and recommendations for screening are given.
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ranking = 6
keywords = emphysema
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3/73. Severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and pregnancy.

    This case study describes a successful pregnancy in a 27-yr-old patient with severe emphysema, secondary to alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, genotype PiZZ. Despite significant respiratory compromise, more severe than previously reported, no complications ensued. Maternal pulmonary function did not deteriorate significantly until the 32nd week of pregnancy, with an elective Caesarean section being performed during the 37th week. This experience suggests that even severe maternal airflow obstruction is, in itself, not an absolute contra-indication to pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy multidisciplinary counselling is likely to be helpful in these patients, including frank discussion on the risks of pregnancy, the prospects of successful completion and the mother's future prognosis in relation to caring for the child.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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4/73. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to cytomegalovirus infection in a Japanese patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient emphysema.

    Although alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary diseases and a recognized cause of emphysema in Caucasians, variants of this deficiency are extremely rare among Orientals. We present here a Japanese emphysema patient with the AAT deficiency variant originally identified as S(iiyama). After an 8-year follow-up period, the patient suffered from repeated pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infection for 4 years. He died suddenly of massive pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic examination revealed a necrotic hematoma in the right S10 lobe, which exhibited pneumonia due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Pulmonary hemorrhage due to CMV can occur and be fatal in patients with emphysema and AAT deficiency.
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ranking = 7
keywords = emphysema
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5/73. panniculitis revealing qualitative alpha 1 antitrypsine deficiency (MS variant).

    A 16-year-old girl presented painful, red, nodular lesions on the abdomen. A cutaneous biopsy showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and fibrosis in the dermis and in the septa with isolated adipocyte lobules. alpha1-antitrypsin level was found to be normal but M1S phenotype of alpha1-antitrypsin was determined by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel. alpha1-antitrypsin level was normal for her family but M2S phenotype was found in her father. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha1 AT) deficiency is a common hereditary disorder of Caucasians. The locus is pleiomorphic and 75 alleles have been identified. Numerous pathological mutations can be classified by the mechanisms which cause the deficiency. The major clinical importance of this deficiency is emphysema and liver disease. panniculitis is rarely reported and seems to occur principally for the ZZ or MZ phenotype and for low levels of alpha1 AT. MS phenotype has been more rarely reported and triggering agents such as trauma and infections must be present. However, normal levels of alpha1 AT in the serum have previously been reported as in our case, and we suggest the study of alpha1 AT phenotype even if the plasma level is normal.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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6/73. Redo lung volume reduction surgery in a patient with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    lung volume reduction surgery is a palliative procedure that improves dyspnea and pulmonary function in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Postoperative benefit is sustained for an individual period and depends on the emphysema morphology, the surgical technique, and other not yet well-defined factors. The question whether lung volume reduction surgery can be performed a second time on the same thoracic cavity is often raised but experience in this regard is lacking. We describe a patient who has undergone a successful redo operation 2 years after the initial lung volume reduction surgery.
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ranking = 2
keywords = emphysema
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7/73. adult alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Three adults with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency are described. In two of the cases the deficiency was genetically determined (cases 1 and 2), and each demonstrated unusual features of the disease. The liver in case 1 (homozygous) showed cholangiolar hyperplasia which has been recorded only once before. Case 2 (heterozygous) had emphysema and cirrhosis, a combination not previously documented in a heterozygote, in addition to malabsorption. Case 3 represents a case of spurious alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency with cirrhosis included to emphasize the diagnostic improtance of phenotyping in such cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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8/73. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in a Southland family.

    After diagnosis of an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in a patient with emphysema, three complete generations of his family were screened for the defect. Half of the 42 subjects had a defective phenotype (18 were MZ, two were ZZ, and one SZ). Of this group, five had other avoidable risk factors predisposing to emphysema, and a further 10 were children. The four oldest subjects had radiological evidence of emphysema. patients at risk were advised to stop smoking and avoid occupational exposure to lung irritants.
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ranking = 3
keywords = emphysema
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9/73. A new deficient variant of alpha1-antitrypsin (MDUARTE). Inability to detect the heterozygous state by antitrypsin phenotyping.

    A new molecular variant of alpha1-antitrypsin was discovered in the family of a woman with severe antitrypsin deficiency and bullous emphysema. The variant resembles the Z variant in most respects in that it results in severe antitrypsin deficiency with the homozygous state and intermediate deficiency with the heterozygous state, and is associated with diastase-resistant, periodic acid-Schiff-positive globules in the liver cells. It differs from the usual Z variant, however, by having normal mobility on acid-starch electrophoresis so that the heterozygous state with the normal M form cannot be distinguished by phenotyping procedures on either acid-starch or alkaline-agarose electrophoresis. The variant has been labeled MDUARTE. A review of phenotype patterns in all patients previously classified as having a homozygous ZZ phenotype reveals extra, fast-moving bands on acid-starch suggestive of an MDUARTEZ heterozygous state in 7.9 per cent of such cases. When intermediate antitrypsin deficiency occurs in the presence of a normal phenotype pattern, one must consider that the patient has inherited either a null gene for antitrypsin synthesis or an MDUARTE variant.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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10/73. clinical conference: Severe obstructive lung disease in a 14-year-old girl with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    Severe, largely irreversible obstructive lung disease, compatible with emphysema, was found in a 14-yr-old white girl who had been considered to have chronic asthma. She also presented a serum alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. serum values for alpha-1 antitrypsin on two occassions were 95 and 105 mg/100 ml; Pi type was SZ. A family survey disclosed a 13-yr-old brother with the same pattern of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. His serum value was 122.5 mg/100 ml; Pi type was SZ. He was asymptomatic and showed minimal pulmonary function abnormalities.
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ranking = 1
keywords = emphysema
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