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11/73. Intermediate alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency resulting from a null gene (M-phenotype).

    The presence of a null gene for alpha1-antitrypsin was detected in a family study by the inheritance of intermediate antitrypsin deficiency in association with a normal (PiM) phenotypic pattern. The proband, a 42-year-old man (M-phenotype), was a cigarette smoker and had physiologic evidence of pulmonary emphysema. Three female members of the family were receiving estrogenic medication but had deficient values for serum trypsin inhibitory capacity nevertheless, indicating an unresponsive gene. The mean serum trypsin inhibitory capacity for those with an M-phenotype was significantly lower than that found with an MZ phenotype, presumably due to the total noncontribution to serum antitrypsin activity by the null gene. A quantitative measurement of antitrypsin activity or concentration is necessary in an antitrypsin screening program, since phenotyping procedures alone cannot reveal the null gene.
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keywords = emphysema
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12/73. Compound heterozygosity for alpha-1-antitrypsin (S(iiyama) and QO(clayton)) in an Oriental patient.

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency is extremely rare among Orientals. We treated a 37-year-old man with severe pulmonary emphysema associated with a low serum concentration of alpha1AT. mutation analysis of the alpha1AT gene was performed using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing. The patient proved to be a compound heterozygote carrying a S(iiyama) deficient allele and a QO(clayton) null allele. This is the first Japanese case of alpha1AT deficiency to arise from such compound heterozygosity in a family with no apparent consanguineous marriage, suggesting that the gene frequency for deficient alleles might be somewhat higher than previously estimated.
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keywords = emphysema
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13/73. Eight years of unexplained headaches (why did the diagnosis take so long?).

    The patient had chronic incapacitating headaches for a period of eight years. Neurologic tests ruling out organic causes such as tumors and analysis of diet, allergies, stress levels, and chronic infections left the patient and physicians without an explanation. The headaches did not fit the patterns of common or classic migraines. The patient's energy level had significantly decreased during this same time period, and she had frequently become short of breath. diagnosis of underlying pathology occurred when efforts were focused on explaining respiratory conditions. The patient had an oxygen saturation of 77% and a pulse of 98, following a brief walk around the building. Further testing by a pulmonary specialist confirmed diagnosis of emphysema secondary to a deficiency of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT). Background materials supporting this case history include: a model for AAT function, genetics of AAT deficiency, pathophysiology of both liver and pulmonary diseases, and a summary of treatment options and prognosis for AAT deficient patients.
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keywords = emphysema
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14/73. Combined liver-kidney transplantation in a 15-year-old boy with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (1-AT) deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in infants and children. The major clinical manifestations include liver disease (primarily in children) and emphysema in adults. For patients who progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for the deficiency and presumably prevents the associated complications. Several case reports in the pediatric literature describe glomerulonephritis in the setting of severe 1-AT deficiency, but this association is less well documented in adults. End-stage chronic kidney disease is a rare finding in the literature and kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice. We report on a 15-year-old boy with 1-AT deficiency and consequent end-stage liver disease and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis rapidly progressing to renal failure, who successfully underwent combined liver-kidney transplantation.
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15/73. Intestinal Wegener's granulomatosis in a patient with severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency resulting from a unique combination of two deficiency alleles (PiZ and PiMProcida).

    Alpha-1-antitripsyn neutralizes the tissue damaging effects of proteases. Alpha-1-antitripsyn deficiency manifests with necrotizing vasculitis. Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that uncommonly affects the gut. The molecular genetics of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis of the gastrointestinal tract have never been characterized. A 63-year-old man with emphysema was admitted with a fever of unknown origin. Initially, this fever was linked to ileocolic Crohn's disease and later attributed to antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-positive systemic vasculitis. Genetic analysis revealed that the alpha-1-antitripsyn deficiency was due to a previously unreported compound heterozygosity for two mutations (PiZ and PiMProcida). Our findings appear to support the concept that severe alpha-1-antitripsyn deficiency is implicated in the pathogenesis of the Crohn's disease-like milder intestinal manifestations belonging to the spectrum of Wegener's granulomatosis.
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16/73. Emphysema due to alpha-antitrypsin deficiency: familial study of the YBARCELONA variant.

    A 39-year-old female patient, an ex-smoker with an 8-pack-year smoking history and severe pulmonary emphysema of early onset, received a diagnosis of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and proved to be a carrier of a new deficient variant, YBARCELONA, derived from the normal M1 variant with two substitutions: one in exon III and the other in exon V. AAT genotype of eight members of the same family and study of lung function of the index case and family members at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up were performed. Five subjects were PiYM, with intermediate serum AAT concentrations and normal pulmonary function. No changes were observed over 6 years in pulmonary function of the PiYM patients who were nonsmokers; however, the PiYY index case presented worsening of pulmonary function with FEV(1) of 33%. The heterozygotes PiYM have AAT concentrations similar to the PiMZ and, at 6 years, the nonsmokers presented no worsening in pulmonary function. The risk associated with this variant in its heterozygous form may be similar to that described for PiMZ.
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keywords = emphysema
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17/73. Case study: single lung transplantation for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency predisposes individuals to emphysematous pulmonary changes. Single lung transplantation (SLTX) represents a promising, viable option for the management of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this case study is to discuss the relationship between alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. COPD, and SLTX, and the role of the perioperative nurse.
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keywords = emphysema
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18/73. pulmonary emphysema in a nonsmoker with normal alpha-1-antitrypsin.

    Premature and rapidly progressing emphysema of the lung is unique in the absence of cigarette smoking or an inherited homozygous alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. We describe a young man with radiographic evidence of early onset bullous emphysema without the usual risk factors and provide a review of the alternative explanations proposed for this form of lung damage.
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ranking = 6
keywords = emphysema
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19/73. A new variant of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (Siiyama) associated with pulmonary emphysema.

    A 38-year-old male with pulmonary emphysema due to severely reduced serum alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) level (14.5 mg/dl) was found to have an inherited new AAT deficient variant Siiyama. Chest roentgenogram and CT scanning revealed advanced emphysema, and severe obstructive ventilatory impairment was observed. During the 4-year follow-up period, the annual rate of decline of FEV 1.0 showed approximately 10-fold greater than the normal decline in FEV 1.0 (-380 ml/yr). Treatment with tamoxifen in order to raise the serum AAT level only resulted in an insufficient increase. Augmentation therapy of human AAT should be considered in the future.
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ranking = 6
keywords = emphysema
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20/73. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with severe pulmonary emphysema.

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder characterized by an early onset of emphysema. While this disease is common in the Caucasian population, it is quite rare in japan. To date, only 15 traits have been reported and it can be speculated that many cases of this genetic deficiency may have been overlooked. We report an additional case of AAT deficiency with severe emphysema that is genetically determined as S(iiyama) variant by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = emphysema
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