Cases reported "anaphylaxis"

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1/1066. Anaphylactoid reactions and nephrotic syndrome--a considerable risk during factor ix treatment in patients with haemophilia B and inhibitors: a report on the outcome in two brothers.

    anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions have recently been reported after few treatments with factor ix concentrates in patients with haemophilia B at the same time as inhibitors to factor ix were demonstrated. In some of these cases nephrotic syndrome has appeared during immune tolerance induction (ITI) with high doses of factor ix concentrates. Gene deletions seem to be associated with a high risk of developing antibodies to factor ix. This report presents two brothers with deletion of 1 bp in exon f of the factor ix gene. Both showed anaphylactoid reactions and they were desensitized using slow i.v. injections of factor ix. At the time of anaphylaxis, inhibitors of factor ix in a low titre could be demonstrated. The elder brother responded well after a short time on ITI and has no spontaneous bleedings on regular prophylaxis although in a somewhat higher dose than expected. On the other hand, in spite of comparable regimens, the younger brother has so far been resistant to ITI. Moreover, during treatment with extremely high doses of factor ix concentrate he developed nephrotic syndrome which only slowly subsided after treatment with corticosteroids and withdrawal of factor ix. ( info)

2/1066. diagnosis of phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    diagnosis of phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis (or lens induced uveitis), a rare autoimmune disease, is difficult due to variable clinical presentation. We sought to diagnose a case based on the cytopathology of the anterior chamber aspirate. This is a case report of spontaneous phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis in a 79-year-old woman with no history of eye trauma or surgery. After clinical examination, diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Cytologic examination of the aspirate revealed polymorphonuclear leukocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells surrounding amorphous lens material. A mature cataract was removed subsequently, and the eye has remained free of inflammation postoperatively. As the clinical diagnosis of phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is often difficult, cytopathology of an anterior chamber aspiration specimen may be useful in diagnosing this rare, treatable condition. As far as we know, this is the first case report of the diagnosis of phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis solely by anterior chamber fine needle aspiration biopsy. ( info)

3/1066. Lymphocyte transformation test for the evaluation of adverse effects of antituberculous drugs.

    The usefulness of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) for the analysis of adverse reactions to antituberculous drugs was evaluated. - The LTT was performed with isoniazid and rifampicin in 15 tuberculosis and 2 MOTT (Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis)-infection patients who suffered drug reactions, in 23 patients without any adverse reactions, in 7 controls previously exposed to antituberculous drugs, and in 14 controls who had never been exposed. 4/15 of the hepatotoxic reactions only showed a positive LTT with rifampicin, 3/15 only with isoniazid, and in 8/15 the LTT was negative. In an anaphylactoid shock reaction the LTT was extremely exaggerated for both rifampicin and isoniazid. In patients without any side effects only one slightly increased LTT due to isoniazid was observed. Two healthy controls with previous contact to these drugs showed a positive LTT for isoniazid, one of those with both rifampicin and isoniazid. The LTT was negative in all control persons without any former contact to antituberculous medications. In most cases hepatotoxicity seems to be a pure toxic reaction without the participation of cellular immune mechanisms. LTT can be useful for identifying the drug responsible for immunological side effects. ( info)

4/1066. Anaphylactic reaction to oral cefaclor in a child.

    Adverse drug reactions are a common clinical problem. It has been estimated that 6% to 15% of hospitalized patients experience some sort of adverse drug reaction. Clinical manifestations of adverse drug reactions include skin rash; a serum sickness-like reaction; drug fever; pulmonary, hepatic, and renal involvement; and systemic anaphylaxis. Many of these adverse events are not immunologically mediated. Actual allergic or immunologic drug reactions probably account for <25% of adverse drug reactions overall. Antibiotics are one of the major contributors to drug hypersensitivity. cefaclor, an oral second-generation cephalosporin with a beta-lactam ring, is used against various infectious diseases of the respiratory tract, especially in children. Several cases of cefaclor hypersensitivity have been reported. The most common presentations are either erythematous or papular eruptions, although serum sickness-like reactions have also been described. Anaphylactic reactions, although rare, have been observed in adults. Here we report a case of anaphylactic reaction to cefaclor in a 21/2-year-old patient. ( info)

5/1066. Anaphylactoid reaction to adenosine.

    adenosine (Adenocard) is an endogenous purine nucleoside that has been approved recently for intravenous treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. With a serum half-life of 10 seconds, reported side effects including facial flushing, dyspnea, and chest pressure are common, but very transient. An elderly woman who received adenosine for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia had a prolonged anaphylactoid reaction that required pharmacological treatment. This is the first reported case of a prolonged anaphylactoid reaction to adenosine. ( info)

6/1066. Moderately severe anaphylactoid reaction to pentastarch (200/0.5) in a patient with acute severe asthma.

    The use of synthetic colloids for resuscitation and volume replacement is common in the intensive care unit. Although adverse reactions have been reported to colloid solutions, the incidence of severe reactions to the starch derivatives is low. We report a case of an anaphylactoid reaction to pentastarch (200/0.5) in a young asthmatic who received it as a fluid challenge in the intensive care unit. The pathogenesis and implications of such a reaction in an asthmatic are discussed. ( info)

7/1066. anaphylaxis from intraperitoneal infusion of cisplatin: a case report.

    Anaphylactic reactions to platinum compounds and paclitaxel are well-recognized complications during their systemic administration. Although there have been reports describing anaphylaxis during intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutic agents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no hypersensitivity reactions after intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic drugs has been reported in the English literature. The authors report an unusual case of anaphylaxis occurring in a 33-year-old woman who has been treated with paclitaxel and cisplatin for ovarian cancer. She developed a hypersensitivity reaction during her ninth cycle of chemotherapy, immediately after institution of intraperitoneal infusion of cisplatin. It is important to be aware of the possibility of anaphylaxis during chemotherapy administration other than the systemic route so that appropriate premedication or effective treatment can be promptly instituted. ( info)

8/1066. Development of a life-threatening anaphylactoid reaction following administration of ioversol in a child.

    We report for the first time the case of a 3-year-old girl who developed a severe anaphylactoid reaction following the administration of the nonionic, low osmolar intravenous radiographic contrast agent ioversol. Severe reactions to ioversol have rarely been reported in adult patients and to our knowledge never in children. health care providers managing children who may require radiologic imaging studies with ioversol should be aware of the potential complications of this radiographic contrast agent. ( info)

9/1066. ceftizoxime-induced hemolysis due to immune complexes: case report and determination of the epitope responsible for immune complex-mediated hemolysis.

    BACKGROUND: Several occurrences of immune complex-mediated, cephalosporin-induced intravascular hemolysis have been reported. This report describes the first case of hemolytic anemia caused by an immune-complex mechanism associated with ceftizoxime and delineates the epitope responsible for hemolysis. CASE REPORT: The patient's serum was tested for antibody that reacted with five penicillins and 30 cephems (all types of cephalosporins) by using protocols to detect drug-adsorption and immune-complex mechanisms. The patient's antibody that formed immune complexes with ceftizoxime reacted with 10 of 30 cephems. These 10 drugs were classified as oxime-type cephalosporins, which have a common structural formula consisting of [(Z)-2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido] at the C7 position on 7-aminocephalosporinic acid with or without substitution at the C3 position. CONCLUSION: The patient's antibody recognized a common structure in 10 oxime-type cephalosporins, and immune complexes formed by the antibody specifically or nonspecifically bound to red cell membranes. Therefore, when intermittent antibiotic therapy is required, as in this case, care should be taken in antibiotic selection to avoid drug-induced hemolytic anemia. In addition, when this type of hemolysis is observed, tests for antibody that reacts by adsorption and immune-complex mechanisms should be performed against penicillins and cephems to select antibiotics not showing a cross-reaction. ( info)

10/1066. Breastfeeding anaphylaxis case study.

    This case describes a woman who experienced an anaphylatic reaction associated with breastfeeding. The reaction occurred with each feeding on day three postpartum and resolved on day four. Possible reasons for this severe reaction are suggested. ( info)
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