Cases reported "Anemia, Refractory"

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1/148. Complete remission of refractory anemia following a single high dose of cyclophosphamide.

    We describe a case of stable complete remission in a patient with refractory anemia complicated by severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, achieved with a single high dose (4 g/m2) of cyclophosphamide (cyclo). Concomitantly, an effective mobilization of CD34-positive cells was induced. Other immunosuppressive approaches including high-dose methylprednisolone, high-dose immunoglobulin, and cyclosporine had been ineffective. This finding suggests that, in selected cases, an immunologic mechanism may mediate cytopenia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In addition, it demonstrates that successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells can be induced with high-dose cyclo in MDS. ( info)

2/148. Extramedullary tumors of myeloid blasts in adults as a pattern of relapse following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Extramedullary tumors of lymphoid and myeloid blasts outside the well-defined sanctuaries following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) are rare. Little is known about the biology, treatment, and outcome of these tumors in this setting. methods: In this retrospective analysis, 134 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who underwent allo-BMT at a single institution between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Five cases of isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma that occurred as patterns of recurrence following allo-BMT between 1990 and 1998 are reported. These patients were treated with radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, or a second allo-BMT. Clinical outcome is compared with posttransplantation bone marrow relapses observed during the same period at the same institution. The literature on the clinical characteristics, currently available treatment, and outcome of posttransplantation myeloid sarcoma patients was reviewed. RESULTS: Excluding isolated skin and central nervous system recurrences, the frequency of extramedullary myeloid sarcoma encountered as a relapse pattern following allo-BMT was determined to be 3.7% among patients with acute or chronic leukemia of myeloid origin. The survival of patients who were managed with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was less than 4 months. A patient who underwent a second allo-BMT following local radiotherapy is alive and in complete remission more than 33 months after the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. The median survival of 17 patients with posttransplantation bone marrow relapse following allo-BMT was 2.2 months. When posttransplantation medullary recurrences are analyzed, patients with CML had a median survival of 12 months, with a significantly better 5-year survival rate than patients with AML (0 vs. 60%, P = 0.015; median survival, 12 months). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma following allo-BMT are poor, as in any leukemic relapse, with the exception of patients with CML in this setting. ( info)

3/148. Long-term improvement of hematopoiesis following cyclosporine treatment in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Current treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is unsatisfactory. Very recently, immunosuppressive treatment strategies have been gaining interest. We report a patient with transfusion-dependent MDS who achieved significant hematopoietic improvement following cyclosporine (CsA) therapy and who is now transfusion independent for more than 5 years. This single observation supports the view that CsA, among other immunosuppressive agents, could play an important role in future treatment concepts in MDS and may lead to clinically relevant and sustained improvement of hematopoiesis in a subset of patients. ( info)

4/148. Two cases of myeloid disorders and a t(8;12) (q12;p13).

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 12 have been described in different hematologic malignancies. Some of these abnormalities showed a rearrangement of the ETV6 gene. We studied the 12p region in one case with a t(8;12)(q12;p13) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DESIGN AND methods: We have identified a chromosome translocation, t(8;12)(q12;p13) in two patients with myeloid disorders; one with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and one with refractory anemia (RA). FISH studies with specific probes (cosmids and YACs) for the 12p region were used to investigate one case. RESULTS: FISH studies demonstrated hemizygous loss of the ETV6 and CDKN1B regions and two copies of the CCDN2 locus, as a result of the balanced translocation and an additional copy of the der(8). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid diseases with t(8;12)(q12;p13) have an interstitial deletion of 12p, including the ETV6 and CDKN1B regions. A duplication of CCDN2 locus can also be found. ( info)

5/148. Successful therapy of myelodysplastic syndrome with menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog.

    Although vitamin K2 is an inducer of the in vitro differentiation of myeloid leukemic cell lines, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is unclear. We administered a vitamin K2 analog, menatetrenone, at 45 mg daily to an 80-year-old woman with MDS (refractory anemia) heavily dependent on red-cell transfusions. The patient's pancytopenia gradually improved, and she became transfusion-independent after 14 months. pancytopenia recurred when menatetrenone was discontinued but recovered again with readministration. Administration of menatetrenone at a dose effective in improving osteoporosis may also be useful in restoring hematopoiesis in MDS patients, possibly by way of inducing differentiation. ( info)

6/148. Pseudo-Gaucher cells in myelodysplasia.

    A case of myelodysplastic syndrome is reported, in which the bone marrow contained many cells with the typical light microscopic morphology of Gaucher cells. In the absence of any evidence of inherited Gaucher's disease, these cells are considered to be pseudo-Gaucher cells, which have been described previously in association with other haematological diseases. This is the first report of their occurrence in myelodysplastic syndrome. ( info)

7/148. Successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood-onset refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts.

    Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) is an extremely rare type of myelodysplastic syndrome in children. We describe a 10-year-old boy with RARS presented with pancytopenia. He remained relatively stable with only a few transfusions until age of 20 years, when he underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) because of increased transfusion requirements. He remains in complete chimeric state at 20 months posttransplant with normal hematologic parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first description of successful BMT in a patient with childhood-onset RARS. The indication of BMT for this rare disorder in children is discussed. ( info)

8/148. Relapsing polychondritis and myelodysplasia: a report of two cases and review of the current literature.

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare multisystem disorder. We describe two case reports of patients with RP, one of whom developed myelodysplasia subtype refractory anaemia (RA) and the other, refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS). We also review the literature of association between RP and haematological disorders. ( info)

9/148. Co-existence of cutaneous true histiocytic lymphoma with refractory anaemia: report of a case.

    The case of a 70-year-old man with refractory anaemia who developed cutaneous true histiocytic lymphoma two years after diagnosis, is described. Whether this association is a simple coincidence or indicates some etiopathogenetic relationship between these two unrelated disorders is unknown and needs the analysis of more cases. ( info)

10/148. Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts with a low IPSS score progressed rapidly with de novo appearance of multiple karyotypic abnormalities and into acute erythroleukemia (AML-M6A).

    We report here a case of refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) with a low risk group by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) at the time of diagnosis but had a rapid disease progression. Although the patient showed a normal male karyotype at the time of RARS diagnosis, his marrow cells had del(5)(q14) and add(17)(p12) abnormalities 2 months after the diagnosis, and later the marrow cells had multiple abnormalities and the patient expired 6 months after the initial diagnosis of RARS. The patient was diagnosed as having RARS with a low risk group by the IPSS classification, however, one should keep in mind that some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with low risks by either the French-American-British (FAB) classification or the IPSS classification may have progressive disease and subsequential cytogenetic analysis could predict the disease progression. ( info)
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