Cases reported "Anophthalmos"

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1/128. Tessier type VI-VII cleft combination associated with congenital bimaxillary fusion and anophthalmia.

    Congenital intermaxillary fusion is a rare anomaly. Combination of the anomaly with any type of facial cleft is extremely rare. death in a majority of these patients as a result of feeding and aspiration problems in early life may have caused the reports to be limited. In this article a 5-year-old patient, probably the first in the literature having Tessier type VI-VII facial cleft combination associated with bimaxillary fusion and anophthalmia on the right side, is presented. The patient has survived on fluid meal through a very small opening for 5 years. The features of the case are presented, and the time and method of the management of such a rare anomaly are discussed with a review of the literature. ( info)

2/128. Ectopic brain tissue in the orbit.

    PURPOSE: The authors report findings in a 9-month-old male infant with heterotopic brain tissue in the orbit, and compare and contrast the characteristics in this patient with the few other descriptions of such lesions in the literature. methods: Excisional biopsy of the growth was undertaken by means of an anterior orbitotomy. RESULTS: A 9-month-old male infant had a history of congenital left 'anophthalmia' and a slowly growing mass in the left orbit. An MRI scan revealed an orbital mass with solid and cystic components. Histological study of the excised tissue was performed and revealed a choristomatous arrangement of dysplastic brain tissue with intermixed primitive retina including pigmented epithelium. There was no connection between the orbit and cranial cavity. CONCLUSIONS: The mass must be considered a rare example of heterotopic brain tissue in the orbit and is the only instance we could find in the literature in which a formed eye was absent but in which a scattered primitive ocular structure could be identified. ( info)

3/128. Congenital anophthalmos in benin city, nigeria.

    Clinical anophthalmos is a very rare condition and this is illustrated in benin City, nigeria where the two cases described are the only cases that have been seen at the University of benin teaching Hospital over a period of twenty years. The two cases were unilateral anophthalmos. The first case is a case of primary anophthalmos while the second case is the consecutive or degenerative type of anophthalmos. ( info)

4/128. Tarsal switch procedure for the surgical rehabilitation of the eyelid and socket deficiencies of the anophthalmic socket.

    PURPOSE: To describe a tarsal transfer procedure, which we have named the "tarsal switch," to correct the eyelid malpositions and camouflage the socket defects of acquired anophthalmos. methods: The technique consists of an upper eyelid tarsectomy, with transfer of the autologous tarsoconjunctival graft to the posterior lamella of the lower eyelid. RESULTS: The operation was performed in 21 anophthalmic patients. In 16 patients with eyelid malpositions, excellent results (within 1 mm of the fellow eye) were attained in 100% of the patients with ptosis, and in 88% of patients with lower eyelid retraction. In the remaining 5 patients, orbital volume loss with secondary implant migration, inferior prosthetic displacement and eyelid asymmetry predominated. In these patients the anophthalmic orbital defects and eyelid asymmetry were masked well. patient satisfaction was high and complications were few during an average follow-up interval of 16 months. CONCLUSION: The tarsal switch procedure is useful in managing the eyelid malpositions and masking the orbital deficiencies of the anophthalmic socket. ( info)

5/128. Genomic cloning and characterization of the human homeobox gene SIX6 reveals a cluster of SIX genes in chromosome 14 and associates SIX6 hemizygosity with bilateral anophthalmia and pituitary anomalies.

    The drosophila gene sine oculis (so), a nuclear homeoprotein that is required for eye development, has several homologues in vertebrates (the SIX gene family). Among them, SIX3 is considered to be the functional orthologue of so because it is strongly expressed in the developing eye. However, embryonic SIX3 expression is not limited to the eye field, and SIX3 has been found to be mutated in some patients with holoprosencephaly type 2 (HPE2), suggesting that SIX3 has wide implications in head development. We report here the cloning and characterization of SIX6, a novel human SIX gene that is the homologue of the chick Six6(Optx2) gene. SIX6 is closely related to SIX3 and is expressed in the developing and adult human retina. Data from chick and mouse suggest that the human SIX6 gene is also expressed in the hypothalamic and the pituitary regions. SIX6 spans 2567 bp of genomic dna and is split in two exons that are transcribed into a 1393-nucleotide-long mRNA. Chromosomal mapping of SIX6 revealed that it is closely linked to SIX1 and SIX4 in human chromosome 14q22.3-q23, which provides clues about the origin and evolution of the vertebrate SIX family. Recently three independent reports have associated interstitial deletions at 14q22.3-q23 with bilateral anophthalmia and pituitary anomalies. Genomic analyses of one of these cases demonstrated SIX6 hemizygosity, strongly suggesting that SIX6 haploinsufficiency is responsible for these developmental disorders. ( info)

6/128. Congenital orbital teratoma.

    A case of congenital orbital teratoma is described in which there was no organized eye only microscopic evidence of ocular tissues within the disorganized teratoma. A baby boy presented at birth with a 10-x-8-cm mass extruding from the left orbit. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mixed cystic-solid orbital mass containing areas of calcification and deforming the bony orbit around its margins. There was no organized eye and no intracranial extension. The eye was removed with reconstruction of the eyelids. Histopathology showed representation from all three germ cell layers consistent with a teratoma. There was no organized eye, but some disorganized ocular structures within the teratoma. Follow-up has been uneventful. Neonatologists and pediatricians should be aware of the possible diagnoses in a newborn presenting with an orbital mass, so that early definitive surgery can be performed with preservation of the globe where possible. ( info)

7/128. Congenital cystic eye: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    A 13-month-old boy and a 2-week-old girl, who were considered to be anophthalmic and who later each developed a cystic lesion in the left orbit with protrusion of the lower eyelid, were studied. The fellow eye in case 1 was subsequently found to be microphthalmic with cyst and was normal in case 2. Histopathologic study of each case revealed a cyst lined externally by dense fibrous connective tissue to which skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were attached. The inner aspect of the cyst was lined by neuroglial tissue, possible immature retinal tissue, and cuboidal epithelium. No fully developed ocular structures or microphthalmos were identified. Fourteen cases of congenital cystic eye, including our cases, have been published in the English-language literature since 1964. We discuss and illustrate the findings in our cases and 10 others in which histopathologic findings were reported. Congenital cystic eye, microphthalmos with cyst, and microphthalmos with cystic teratoma should be suspected in patients with a small or unrecognizable eye and an orbital cystic mass that is detected by palpation or visualization. ( info)

8/128. Isolated bilateral anophthalmia in a girl with an apparently balanced de novo translocation: 46,XX,t(3;11)(q27;p11.2).

    Primary anophthalmos is a heterogeneous condition. In its nonsyndromal form, it is usually considered an autosomal recessive trait. However, other causes such as chromosomal abnormalities and prenatal insults need to be considered. We report on a unique reciprocal translocation 46,XX,t(3;11)(q27;p11.2) in a baby with isolated anophthalmos. Both Chitayat et al. [1996] and Alvarez Arratia et al. [1984] have reported on cases of terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 3. In each case the child had multiple anomalies including microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Because our patient appears to have no other anomalies, this break point may indicate that a genetic locus for eye formation exists at chromosome site 3q27. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ( info)

9/128. New syndrome of growth and mental retardation, structural anomalies of the central nervous system, and first branchial arch, anophthalmia, heminasal a/hypoplasia, and atypical clefting: report on four Brazilian patients.

    We report on four unrelated Brazilian patients with growth and mental retardation, structural anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS), mainly callosal agenesis, prominent forehead, facial asymmetry, anophthalmia, heminasal a/hypoplasia, preauricular skin tags, structural anomalies of the external ears, and atypical clefting. This combination of anomalies is unique and, to our knowledge, is a previously undescribed syndrome of unknown etiology, although one of the patients was born to a consanguineous couple, suggesting the possibility of autosomal recessive inheritance. Clinical, genetic, and differential diagnosis aspects are discussed. ( info)

10/128. Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome: report and review.

    The ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome of Waardenburg is an autosomal recessive trait comprising eye malformations ranging from true anophthalmia to mild microphthalmia with acromelic malformations. Some 29 affected individuals have been reported since Waardenburg's first report in 1935 [Waardenburg et al., 1961]. We report on a new case with bilateral anophthalmia and typical limb malformations. The patient also was found to have interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos continuation as an additional finding. The previous reports are reviewed to elucidate the spectrum of the syndrome. ( info)
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