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1/32. Primary progressive aphasia: a case report.

    We report a 69-year-old male patient whose motor aphasia started at the age of 61. The language disability remained isolated and progressed over a period of eight years without any additional cognitive deficits. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate cortical atrophy with frontal dominance. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) showed hypoperfusion in the frontotemporoparietal region, positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated a global cortical reduction of glucose utilization with a lesser decrement in the occipital lobes. The clinical symptoms and the neuropsychological findings fit the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. ( info)

2/32. Primary progressive aphasia : a case report.

    Primary progressive aphasia is due to focal left perisylvian degeneration and manifests with progressive decline in language function for two or more years. There is preservation of cognitive functions and activities of daily living continue to be normal. We report a case of progressive aphasia in a 65 year old lady. ( info)

3/32. Primary progressive aphasia presenting as conduction aphasia.

    We report a case of a woman with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) who presented with conduction aphasia. A 60-year-old, right-handed, Japanese female suffering from progressive aphasia had difficulty in repeating words and phrases. She displayed phonemic paraphasias but had preserved comprehension and had no cognitive or behavior disorder for more than 6 years after the onset of the condition. She was able to continue to work successfully and to perform all her normal daily activities. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed minute dilatation of the left inferior horn and sulci in the left hemisphere, and positron emission tomography revealed mild hypometabolism in the left supramarginal gyrus and its surrounding areas. Therefore, she was diagnosed as suffering from PPA presenting as conduction aphasia. We believe that the progressive conduction aphasia of the patient belongs to one of the fluent forms of PPA, and the ability to continue normal work along with the clinical portrayal of preserved memory and cognition skills may be features of a form of PPA presenting as conduction aphasia. ( info)

4/32. An autopsy case of Alzheimer's disease presenting with primary progressive aphasia: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    This report describes an autopsied Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) as an early symptom. The patient developed a progressive speech disturbance at the age of 70 years, and difficulty in comprehension became apparent 2 years later. magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed asymmetrical brain atrophy, predominantly on the left temporal lobe. At the age of 74 years, the patient's dementia rapidly progressed with parkinsonism and he died after a disease duration of 6 years. At autopsy, the brain showed a marked temporo-frontal lobe atrophy, predominantly on the left side. There was severe neuronal loss with gliosis and tissue rarefaction in the atrophied cerebral cortex and amygdala. Many neurofibrillary tangles with neuropil threads were found in the cerebral cortex. Numerous amyloid deposits were distributed throughout the cerebral cortex, accompanied by amyloid angiopathies. This patient was clinically diagnosed with temporal lobe-dominant Pick's disease, although the possibility of corticobasal degeneration was made. The neuropathological diagnosis was AD with asymmetrical brain atrophy and widespread amyloid angiopathies. ( info)

5/32. Corticobasal degeneration presenting with nonfluent primary progressive aphasia: a clinicopathological study.

    A 62-year-old woman initially presented with slowly progressive nonfluent aphasia with minimal intellectual involvement. echolalia and personality change were prominent whereas parkinsonian features and signs suggesting parietal lobe dysfunctions were not present. The patient's language deficit was consistent with transcortical motor aphasia. She did not manifest extrapyramidal signs. The patient was diagnosed as having Pick's disease or frontal lobe dementia. She died at age 65, 2 years and 9 months following disease onset. Neuropathological findings including cytoskeletal abnormalities, however, were clearly distinct from those of classical Pick's disease and were consistent with those reported in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). The distribution of her cortical lesions was accentuated in the frontal language-related area. The clinical manifestations in CBD are diverse, and primary progressive nonfluent aphasia should be considered as an initial symptom of CBD. Neuropathological examination of such patients should include cytoskeletal abnormality studies. ( info)

6/32. Slowly progressive aphasia: a four-year follow-up study.

    This paper reports the long-term follow-up of GC, a patient with primary progressive aphasia of the fluent type. GC presented at onset with an anomia characterized by sparing of first letter knowledge, that applied mainly to proper names and living categories. No semantic deficits were observed in the first stage of the disease, and MRI showed a left temporal lobe atrophy with a gradient from the pole to the posterior regions, the latter being less involved. We now report the clinical evolution of GC from the 2nd to the 4th year of disease. As the disease progressed, the anomia became more severe and the phenomenon of first letter sparing was no longer detectable. Also semantic knowledge was gradually affected and, eventually, was dramatically lost. However, no other cognitive deficits were seen at the last examination. By that time, the temporal atrophy shown by MRI was bilateral, although still more evident on the left side. ( info)

7/32. Focal degenerative dementia syndromes.

    Focal degenerative dementia syndromes are associated with a characteristic clinical picture, such as frontotemporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, corticobasal degeneration, and the Balint syndrome. A lobar approach may be used to classify the degenerative dementias. The underlying pathology of these various syndromes seems to be less heterogeneous than previously thought. ( info)

8/32. Intensive training of phonological skills in progressive aphasia: a model of brain plasticity in neurodegenerative disease.

    Three patients with a typical syndrome of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (Mesulam's syndrome) were trained daily with a remediation protocol including auditory exercises specifically designed to involve several aspects of phonological processing, a domain known to be specifically affected in the condition. The speech content of the exercises was based on the temporal theory of phonological processes according to which increasing the duration of formant transition should facilitate phoneme discrimination and phoneomic awareness. Significantly improved performance on the trained tasks was demonstrated in the three patients. Improvement further generalized to other tasks such as nonword repetition and reading. We conclude that such results (1) argue for using intensive focused therapy of language impairment in neurodegenerative disorders, (2) may constitute a good model of brain plasticity in neurodegenerative disorders in general, and (3) support theories of phonological processing emphasizing temporal features of the auditory signal. ( info)

9/32. Patterns of cerebral atrophy in primary progressive aphasia.

    The authors illustrate the spectrum of clinical and imaging patterns in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a syndrome of slowly progressive speech and language impairment occurring with neurodegenerative disease. Although PPA presents with relatively isolated impairment in language, many patients progress to global cognitive or behavioral dysfunction. The syndrome may be associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD)- or alzheimer disease (AD)-type changes. Authors describe the clinical presentation in three cases of PPA and analyze the pattern of cerebral atrophy in each case with voxel-based morphometry. Two patients presented with nonfluent progressive aphasia. Subtle differences in the clinical features were suggestive of FTD in one case and AD in the other. neuroimaging revealed a predominance of frontal atrophy in the first case and temporo-parietal atrophy in the second. The third case presented with the syndrome of semantic dementia and showed the typical behavioral problems associated with FTD and a pattern of left-greater-than-right temporal atrophy. Different clinical syndromes in PPA are associated with different patterns of atrophy. In the future, combined analysis of imaging and clinical characteristics may allow more accurate etiologic diagnosis. ( info)

10/32. Prominent hypometabolism of the right temporoparietal and frontal cortex in two left-handed patients with primary progressive aphasia.

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive deterioration of language function with relative preservation of other cognitive functions. Previous studies based on neuroimaging and histology point to predominantly left temporal pathology in PPA patients. Here we report two left-handed subjects with typical symptoms of the nonfluent form of PPA in whom 18F-FDG PET revealed an asymmetric right-hemispheric pattern of reduced glucose metabolism in the frontal and temporoparietal cortex. These findings support the hypothesis that PPA can be considered as a symptom complex rather than a disease entity. ( info)
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