Cases reported "Arthrogryposis"

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1/265. cleft palate, ptosis, digital anomalies and mental retardation: a new syndrome or a distal arthrogryposis variant?

    A case is presented of a female with cleft palate, digital anomalies and mental retardation. The case is compared with one already reported and possible diagnoses discussed. These cases appear to present a new syndrome or a variant of distal arthrogryposis. ( info)

2/265. prenatal diagnosis of distal arthrogryposis type 1.

    A 23-year-old woman, gravida 1 parity 0, was referred for routine ultrasound examination at 23 weeks gestation. Fetal anatomy was normal. However, both hands demonstrated clasped thumbs without extension. Repeated ultrasound examination verified the bilateral hands posture. The position of the hands did not change following sound stimulation. The child was diagnosed as distal arthrogryposis type 1. Prenatal counselling by the pediatric orthopedic surgeon, geneticist and gynecologist, was provided, to inform the parents on the probable outcome of the fetus and the hands. The parents were advised to continue with the pregnancy. A 1,975-g healthy boy was delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Neonatal examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis of arthrogryposis type 1. Following reconstructive surgery the child functions well with both his hands. ( info)

3/265. Autosomal recessive micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelination and arthrogryposis.

    The clinical courses, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy findings of two infants born to an inbred Arab family are described. They had a syndrome of micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelin formation and arthrogryposis. Increased variation of fiber size was seen in the muscle biopsy, creatine kinase, however was normal. Large areas of muscle were replaced by adipofibrous tissue. The infants had dysmorphic features consistent with the fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence. The abnormalities were suggestive of microlissencephaly probably associated with a dysgenetic process in the muscles. The syndrome showed an autosomal recessive inheritance. ( info)

4/265. Non-lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita presenting with cystic hygroma at 13 weeks gestational age.

    arthrogryposis is defined as multiple joint contractures, the aetiology of which is variable. prenatal diagnosis has focused on diminshed fetal movement and detection of joint contractures on ultrasound. These findings usually do not become evident until 16 to 18 weeks of gestation. Although others (Baty, 1989; Hyett et al., 1997) have reported the diagnosis of arthrogryposis in the first and early second trimester by the presence of nuchal oedema, these reports have all focused on lethal conditions. We report on two female siblings with non-lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. The diagnosis was suspected in the second pregnancy at 13.5 weeks when a large cystic hygroma was detected on ultrasound. Multiple joint contractures became evident at 18 weeks. We hypothesize that the aetiology may be secondary to delay in lymphatic maturation with development of a large cystic hygroma resulting in restriction of fetal movement during early joint formation. Further, the fact that the two female siblings had a similar pattern of facial and joint development, and that their parents are second cousins, suggests an autosomal recessive basis for this form of AMC. ( info)

5/265. The C.C.A. syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly): a new differential syndrome for Marfan's syndrome and homocystinuria.

    The first case in the dental literature of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (C.C.A. syndrome) is presented. This newly delineated syndrome is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of connective tissue. Its similarities to Marfan's syndrome and homocystinuria, as well as other syndromes, are discussed. The lack of cardiovascular disease, specific ocular anomalies, and mental retardation are presented in the differential diagnosis of the C.C.A syndrome with Marfan's syndrome and homocystinuria. ( info)

6/265. Clinical spectrum and diagnostic difficulties of infantile ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia type 1.

    We present the clinical and histopathological features and the diagnostic difficulties encountered in five children affected by a motor neuron disorder other than spinal muscular atrophy. Investigations performed suggested the diagnosis of ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia type 1 (PCH-1). Severe respiratory difficulty was present at birth in two of these children; hypotonia, arthrogryposis, microcephaly and nystagmus were present in all. Early and progressive bulbar involvement with swallowing difficulties and stridor was also a common feature in these infants. Severe cognitive delay was invariably present. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia in four children while striking atrophy of the cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemispheres were present in the fifth child. Electrophysiological and pathological investigations of proximal muscles performed at presentation in all these children were not conclusive, while the post-mortem studies, or the study of distal muscles during life, showed a clear neurogenic picture. Genetic studies excluded involvement of the SMN gene, or of other genes located on chromosome 5q, confirming that ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia type 1 is a different entity from typical proximal spinal muscular atrophy. ( info)

7/265. Mitochondrial complex I deficiency in a female with multiplex arthrogryposis congenita.

    A 10-year-old female with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is presented. Clinical, neurophysiologic, and histologic findings suggested a mild myopathy. The analysis of enzymatic activity in the homogenate and of mitochondrial function in saponin-permeabilized fibers from the muscle biopsy revealed an approximately twofold-decreased specific activity of the NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase (complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) that was compensated for by an increased number of mitochondria. The complex I deficiency was also detected in cultivated skin fibroblasts of the patient. The observed defect of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita may be of pathogenetic relevance. ( info)

8/265. arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and bilateral mid-brain infarction following maternal overdose of co-proxamol.

    We report a case of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita secondary to fetal hypokinesia in a 41-week gestation infant following antenatal central nervous system injury. The mother's pregnancy was complicated by an episode of attempted self harm, with an overdose of co-proxamol at 22 weeks of gestational age, and by the use of cocaine in combination with excess alcohol intake. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral mid-brain cysts and marked atrophy of the basal ganglia and thalami. ( info)

9/265. Severe type II gaucher disease with ichthyosis, arthrogryposis and neuronal apoptosis: molecular and pathological analyses.

    Severe infantile gaucher disease associated with ichthyosis and neonatal death is a rare subgroup of Type II gaucher disease. This group of infants has little, if any, detectable beta-glucocerebrosidase activity, and prior genetic analyses have been limited in detecting the mutations responsible for this phenotype. We document an Hispanic infant succumbing with arthrogryposis and collodion membrane covering the skin who had no detectable beta-glucocerebrosidase activity in tissue samples and who was homozygous for a rare recombinant allele, RecNciI. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated accumulation of Gaucher cells in visceral organs and extensive loss of neurons in the anterior horns, brainstem, and cortex of the nervous system. The apoptosis of neuronal cells from the anterior horns and brainstem are a reasonable explanation for the arthrogryposis and neonatal death, respectively. ( info)

10/265. Two brothers with distal arthrogryposis, peculiar facial appearance, cleft palate, short stature, hydronephrosis, retentio testis, and normal intelligence: a new type of distal arthrogryposis?

    We report on two brothers, a 22-month-old boy and a 7-month-old boy, with multiple distal arthrogryposis (DA), peculiar facial appearance, cleft palate, short stature, hydronephrosis, retentio testis, and normal intelligence and karyotypes. The parents were cousins once removed. The combination of the clinical manifestations in the patients and the lack of involvement in their parents are incompatible with any known types of DA, and suggest a new type of DA. The parental consanguinity in the family suggests that the disorder is an autosomal recessive condition, although X-linked inheritance is not ruled out. ( info)
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