Cases reported "Aspergillosis"

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1/1459. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with obstruction of the upper respiratory tract.

    A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is presented. The only symptoms in this 24-year-old woman patient were those of recurrent nasal obstruction, including mucosal ulcerations, edema, and thick secretions within the nose. ( info)

2/1459. Successful treatment of an invasive aspergillosis of the skull base and paranasal sinuses with liposomal amphotericin b and itraconazole.

    Invasive aspergillosis and fulminant aspergillosis are rarities with a high mortality. In the literature there is no patient surviving an extended invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses and skull base after failure of operative intervention and of postoperative amphotericin b therapy. We report a complete remission of an invasive, partially fulminant aspergillosis. After an incomplete removal of the mycotic mass, we started postoperative drug therapy with amphotericin b. Under this treatment, the mycosis progressed. Additionally, the patient developed severe side effects, so that the treatment was interrupted. At this moment, we started a combined antimycotic drug therapy with liposomal amphotericin b and itraconazole. Within 10 weeks, clinically and radiologically, there was complete remission. The patient died 63 weeks after this treatment, due to a fulminant bacterial pneumonia. Postmortem histologic examination showed no aspergillosis in the skull base, paranasal sinuses, or lung. ( info)

3/1459. Antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus species isolated from invasive oral infection in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of in vitro antifungal susceptibility to clinical response in neutropenic patients with invasive oral aspergillosis. STUDY DESIGN: Nine isolates of Aspergillus species were obtained from invasive oral infections in 9 patients with hematologic malignancies and tested for their in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin b, fluconazole, miconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, and itraconazole. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of the 5 drugs were obtained for each fungus through use of a microdilution broth method. The patients were treated with intravenous amphotericin b (30-50 mg/day) in combination with oral 5-fluorocytosine (3000-6000 mg/day) and/or oral itraconazole (200 mg/day). RESULTS: amphotericin b and itraconazole were found to be very active, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 0.861 and 0.194 microg/mL, respectively. miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine showed minimal inhibitory concentration values of 1.72 and 3.56 microg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, fluconazole FCZ showed low activity, with a minimal inhibitory concentration value in excess of 64.0 microg/mL. During neutropenia, combined antifungal chemotherapy stabilized oral aspergillosis and prevented the spread of oral lesions in 8 patients in whom neutrophil counts eventually recovered. CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that in vitro susceptibility testing may serve as an informative parameter with respect to the efficacy of these antifungals in the treatment of invasive oral aspergillosis, inducing fungal stasis until the neutrophils recover. ( info)

4/1459. early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid.

    We treated a patient diagnosed as central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with the combined use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-PCR). DWI, a cutting-edge imaging modality to reveal the earliest changes of cerebral infarction, detected cerebral fungal embolization when the conventional computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal it. CSF-PCR demonstrated the presence of Aspergillus-specific dna in the specimen, when the conventional examination and culture of CSF were nonspecific or negative. These diagnostic methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis. ( info)

5/1459. An unusual vascular graft infection by Aspergillus--a case report and literature review.

    Vascular graft infection due to Aspergillus is a rare event. Only 11 previous case reports have been documented. All of these infections were in the aortic position, and infrainguinal arterial prosthetic graft involvement has been uncommon. The usual clinical presentation was back pain. fever and systemic complaints were usually present. An unusual case that began with bilateral groin pain is reported and a review of the clinical presentation and the management of the other cases described in the literature is presented. ( info)

6/1459. Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management.

    The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by aspergillus fumigatus. immunoglobulin g antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus dna was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin b and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment. ( info)

7/1459. Detection of PCR-amplified fungal dna by using a PCR-ELISA system.

    In order to speed up and standardize polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of medically important fungi in clinical samples we established a combination of commercially available kits for dna extraction, PCR amplification and detection of the amplicons. The PCR plate assay proved to be as sensitive and specific as our previously published assay (5 cfu ml(-1) blood). Moreover, in a selected group of patients, all patients with proven and probable invasive fungal infection were found to be PCR-positive. Thus the PCR plate assay was found to be a sensitive, technically simplified and standardized method with potential for adaptation to automation. ( info)

8/1459. splenic rupture in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    splenic rupture is a rare but well-recognized complication of hematological malignancies. Here, we present the case of a 22-year-old woman with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia who was undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. On day 10 she developed a hypovolemic shock due to rupture of her spleen and went to emergency laparotomy. This is the first report of splenic rupture during peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. ( info)

9/1459. sarcoidosis with selective involvement of a second liver allograft: report of a case and review of the literature.

    A case of sarcoidosis recurrent in a patient's second liver allograft is described. There was no granulomatous disease seen in the patient's first liver allograft. After the second orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the patient was successfully treated for acute rejection, aspergillus infection, and cytomegalovirus viremia. Approximately 2 months after the second OLT, the patient was treated with long-term interferon-alpha for recurrent hepatitis c. Five years after the operation, he experienced liver failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis and underwent a third OLT. This is only the second reported case of sarcoidosis recurrent in the liver parenchyma of a transplanted organ and the first in which interferon-alpha might have played a role. ( info)

10/1459. Spinal aspergillus abscess in a patient with bronchocentric granulomatosis.

    aspergillus fumigatus hyphae is often found in the lung tissue of patients with bronchocentric granulomatosis (BCG). This organism is believed to be one agent responsible for inciting the hypersensitivity response and subsequent development of the characteristic pathology that defines BCG. The definitive etiology of this disease, however, remains conjectural. Corticosteroids represent the mainstay of therapy. The fungi recovered from patients with BCG are considered noninvasive; thus, the risk of fungal invasion secondary to steroid-induced immunosuppression is believed to be negligible. However, we report a case of spinal aspergillus abscess that developed in a patient with BCG subsequent to steroid therapy. This case also highlights the necessity for aggressive medical and neurosurgical intervention to avert the development of neurological sequelae. ( info)
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