Cases reported "Atrophy"

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11/2128. fucosidosis: immunological studies and chronological neuroradiological changes.

    A 3.5-y-old boy of Arabic origin had the clinical features of both type 1 and type 2 fucosidosis, consistent with an intermediate form of the disease. The activity of his leucocyte alpha L-fucosidase was absent. He presented with recurrent sinopulmonary infection and otitis media in addition to paronychia and a periapical dental abscess. Investigation of his systemic immune function did not reveal a significant underlying defect, but subtle abnormalities, particularly of antibody production and secretory IgA, cannot be excluded. The cranial magnetic resonance images showed periventricular and subcortical white matter abnormalities and mild cortical atrophy in addition to globus pallidus changes. ( info)

12/2128. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it. ( info)

13/2128. MR measurement of regional relative cerebral blood volume in epilepsy.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps for studying regional hemodynamic changes in interictal and ictal epilepsy patients. Ten epilepsy patients were examined on a 1.5 T MR system. Nine patients were investigated interictally and one patient ictally. In the nine interictal patients, the dynamic plane was defined coronally through the hippocampus symmetrically. For the ictal patient, an axial dynamic plane was defined and the patient was scanned during seizure. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed in 8 of the 10 patients. Lower rCBV of the left hippocampus was predicted by rCBV maps in seven of the nine interictal patients. The mean ratios of rCBV were 1.96 for left hippocampus/white matter and 2.49 for right hippocampus/white matter. The difference between these two ratios is statistically significant (P = 0.01, t-test). In two of the nine interictal temporal lobe epilepsy patients, lower rCBV areas were observed in the right hippocampus. In the ictal patient, the regional rCBV map demonstrated increased blood volume in the lesions. In eight of eight patients who underwent PET studies, MR rCBV findings were consistent with PET findings. The results show that regional hemodynamic changes in epilepsy can be evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR rCBV maps are sensitive to characterize seizure foci both ictally and interictally. ( info)

14/2128. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis with hypergastrinemia.

    Elevation in fasting serum gastrin levels was found in three patients being evaluated for persistent upper abdominal pain without radiographic evidence of peptic ulcer disease. Fiberoptic endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract in each patient revealed characteristic changes of chronic atrophic gastritis. Gastric biopsies showed diffuse chronic inflammation in the lamina propria, a decrease in the number of parietal cells, and "intestinalization" of gastric mucosa. Total achlorhydria was demonstrated after a maximal histalog stimulus; however, serum levels of vitamin B12 and schilling test values were normal in all three patients. Parietal cell antibodies were found in the serum in all patients in a dilution of 1:20 to 1:80. These cases represent autoimmune (type A) chronic atrophic gastritis and should be distinguished from chronic simple (type B) gastritis, in which serum gastrin levels are normal and no parietal cell antibodies are found in the serum. patients with autoimmune gastritis should be observed at frequent intervals for the occurrence of pernicious anemia or gastric carcinoma. ( info)

15/2128. Cerebellar atrophy: an important feature of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1.

    We report three children, all younger than 2 years of age, presenting with cerebellar atrophy related to carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1, an autosomal recessive metabolic disease. One patient had multisystem disease; two others had mental retardation with ataxia. In all cases the cerebellar atrophy was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging and, in one case, confirmed by autopsy. The cerebellar atrophy predominantly affected the anterior lobe. Vertical orientation of the tentorium cerebelli from the neonatal period in two cases suggests antenatal onset of the disease. Biological tests confirmed the diagnosis in all cases. ( info)

16/2128. Spontaneous resolution of a cervicothoracic syrinx in a child. Case report and review of the literature.

    A child with near complete spontaneous resolution of a cervicothoracic syrinx and improvement in a Chiari type I malformation without surgical intervention is presented. The child was followed clinically with serial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and has remained neurologically stable over an 11-year period. To our knowledge, only 3 pediatric cases of spontaneous resolution of a spinal cord syrinx as documented by MR imaging without surgical intervention have been reported. This case contributes to the literature on the natural history of syringes. ( info)

17/2128. MRI in an unusually protracted neuronopathic variant of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    MRI was performed in two siblings with the neuropathic sphingomyelinase deficiency caused by identical mixed heterozygosity in the structural acid sphingomyelinase gene. The clinical phenotype of the cases is unique in showing a rather protracted course, both having reached the fourth decade. Pronounced cerebellar and mild supratentorial atrophy was seen on MRI in both siblings, in contrast to their strikingly different clinical status. One has no overt neurological deficit, while the second had neocerebellar symptoms and signs, nystagmus and cranial nerve palsies for some years. The MRI findings, together with the cherry-red spot in the ocular fundus, ultrastructurally proved storage in cutaneous nerve schwann cells and the histopathologically proven brain neuronal storage in a third sibling who died after a relatively rapid course dominated by fatal visceral storage, is evidence that a remarkably restricted neuropathology can be caused by this enzymopathy. ( info)

18/2128. Diaschisis in chronic viral encephalitis with Koshevnikov syndrome.

    The authors report a 61-year-old man with chronic viral encephalitis and Koshevnikov syndrome occurring 42 months after initial symptom of right hemiparesis. Serial computed tomography of the brain showed changes in the attenuation of the left temporal lobe lesion over time. Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed enlargement of left temporoparietooccipital lobes with cortical gyral enhancement on T1-weighted images following intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission computerized tomography showed increased radioactivity and hyperperfusion in the left temporoparietal region with paradoxically decreased local tissue perfusion at the contralateral right hemisphere. Follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain 4 years later showed atrophy of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. We postulate that a "transcallosal diaschisis" with subsequent degeneration is a possible mechanism. A brain biopsy from the left temporal lobe lesion showed pictures compatible with viral encephalitis probably herpes simplex encephalitis. ( info)

19/2128. Progressive hippocampal atrophy in chronic intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    We report on a 28-year-old man with long-standing intractable complex partial and secondary generalized seizures, whose magnetic resonance imaging scans 4 years apart documented progressive decrease in the left hippocampal volume. Left anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy rendered the patient seizure free at 12 months' follow-up. The findings demonstrate that patients with uncontrolled temporal lobe seizures may develop progressive atrophy of the hippocampus, in the absence of status epilepticus. ( info)

20/2128. Study of systemic lupus erythematosus in temporal bones.

    Despite some reports of sensorineural hearing loss with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), its pathologic correlate has remained unidentified due to the scarcity of human temporal bone studies. We here present findings in 14 temporal bones from 7 patients with SLE, examined histologically and immunohistochemically for pathologic conditions in the cochlea that might relate to their otologic histories. Blue-staining concretions were seen in the stria vascularis of 6 ears. Most of the cases showed a loss of spiral ganglion cells, with various degrees of hair cell loss and atrophy of the stria vascularis. One ear demonstrated formation of fibrous tissue and bone throughout the cochlea, with complete loss of the membranous labyrinth. Cochlear hydrops was found in only 1 ear. These findings in temporal bones from patients with SLE are discussed in relation to autoimmune disease of the inner ear. ( info)
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