Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Diseases"

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21/580. Rhythmic cortical and muscle discharges induced by fatigue in corticobasal degeneration.

    We describe a patient presenting clinical features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), including reflex myoclonus in the left upper limb. This patient complained of a marked worsening of involuntary movements in the left upper limb after exercise. We analysed the electrophysiological characteristics of myoclonus in the basal state and after a fatiguing exercise in the left upper limb. In the basal condition, single trials recording EEG showed a cortical complex occurring 20 ms after stimulation of the left median nerve. Surface EMG recordings of the left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) revealed an isolated biphasic C1 response 49 ms after stimulation. After exercise, single trials recording EEG following shocks to the left median nerve showed rhythmic complexes with a duration of approximately 80 ms. EEG complexes were made of a series of 3 bursts, with intervals between bursts tending to cluster at approximately 22 ms. These rhythmic complexes were associated with repetitive activity in the left FDI. We conclude that rhythmic cortical and muscle discharges can be induced by fatigue in CBD. ( info)

22/580. Congenital encephalomyopathy with epilepsy, chorioretinitis, basal ganglia involvement, and muscle minicores.

    A woman had severe psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, rigidity, and chorioretinitis. magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebellar and cerebral atrophy and hypointensities in T2-weighted images of the thalami and basal ganglia. Muscle biopsy documented size variations in rounded muscle fibers, fibrosis, and minicores on electron microscopy. Merosin staining was normal. These hitherto unreported features do not permit classification of our patient within the current types of encephalomyopathy and congenital muscular dystrophies. ( info)

23/580. Acute encephalopathy with bilateral striatal necrosis: favourable response to corticosteroid therapy.

    A case of acute encephalopathy with selective bilateral symmetrical striatal lesions is reported. The patient was a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who became obtunded after a febrile illness and fell into a state of delirium with severe pain in the feet. He showed abnormal postures: hyperextension of the neck and upper limbs and extreme flexion of both lower limbs, and abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs: tremor, athetotic movement and right hemiballismus. Analysis of serum antibody titres suggested recent primary infection of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Cranial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated areas of high-signal intensity involving the whole basal ganglia bilaterally. He showed rapid clinical improvement after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy; complete clinical recovery was noted 3 months after the onset. Serial MRI studies demonstrated a rapid reduction of the lesions, resulting in only slight T2-hyperintense areas in both caudate nuclei. The pathogenesis of the disorder remains unknown, though an autoimmune mechanism has been speculated. The clinical and laboratory findings in this case suggested a possible role of HSV-1 in the pathomechanism of the disorder and a beneficial effect of early corticosteroid therapy. ( info)

24/580. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: an extrapyramidal movement disorder with oculogyric crises.

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency results in an impaired synthesis of catecholamines and serotonin, and has been reported only in two middle eastern families. We report on a European family with an affected child. The child showed the characteristic clinical picture of an extrapyramidal movement disorder, oculogyric crises and vegetative symptoms seen in the three patients described previously. Treatment with a combination of the AADC cofactor pyridoxine, the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor selegiline and bromocriptine was started during the fifth year of life and showed only a moderate clinical improvement in contrast to patients who have been treated since the first year of life. ( info)

25/580. pseudohypoparathyroidism-Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.

    A 13 year old girl with short stature, and retarded mental growth with coarse facies and deranged thyroid function test was initially suspected as a case of hypothyroidism and was started on thyroxine. Lack of response to treatment and on further investigations it was diagnosed as a case of pseudohypoparathyroidism. High index of suspicion and careful evaluation is important to diagnose such an entity. ( info)

26/580. Intraoperative direct subcortical stimulation for identification of the internal capsule, combined with an image-guided stereotactic system during surgery for basal ganglia lesions.

    BACKGROUND: The two main problems of surgery for basal ganglia lesions are: first, the difficulty of accurately localizing the lesion in this deep location; and second, the proximity to the internal capsule, with the risk of permanent postoperative sequelae. The author describes the use of intraoperative direct electrical subcortical stimulation in the identification and preservation of the internal capsule, combined with an image-guided stereotactic system for the selection of the best surgical approach in a case of deep cavernoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 33-year-old man was admitted to our institution with a history of three episodes of transitory left hemiparesia in the last 12 years. Neurological examination revealed a mild left weakness. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical features of a right posterior capsular-lentiform cavernoma. To prevent another hemorrhagic event, surgery was performed via a right transdistal sylvian approach, using a computer-assisted stereotactic method that allowed us to reach the lesion directly and direct stimulations to detect the subcortical pyramidal pathways. The patient had a transitory worsening with complete recovery in 10 days. Control MRI showed total resection. CONCLUSION: As described at the cortical level, the intraoperative direct subcortical stimulations seem also to represent an easy, safe, accurate, and reliable method of real-time functional identification of the internal capsule during surgery for basal ganglia lesions. The combination with an image-guided stereotactic system to accurately localize the lesion minimizes the risk of postoperative sequelae, and seems to warrant an increase of the surgical indications in this location. ( info)

27/580. Unusual signs for dural arteriovenous fistulas with diffuse basal ganglia and cerebral calcification.

    We present a case of multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of worsening headache, altered mental status and progressively unsteady gait over the course of one year. Computerized tomography revealed diffuse, symmetric calcification in the bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter. magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple, enhanced, punctate and linear vessels. These images were due to reflux into the parenchymal veins in the dural AVF of the superior sagittal sinus within the basal ganglia and deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. cerebral angiography disclosed multiple dural AVFs. The exact mechanism of basal ganglia and subcortical calcification is proposed to be an arterial steal phenomenon or persistent venous congestion, with calcification occurring in a chronic hypoperfused state or with dystrophic changes in the walls of congested veins. ( info)

28/580. Bilateral basal ganglia lucencies following acute febrile illness.

    Bilateral striatal necrosis in children without damage elsewhere in the brain can present as an acute neurological disorder or as a progressive disorder. Three children of 6, 7 and 12 years age developed dystonic posture of limbs without any cranial nerve involvement or alteration of sensorium soon after recovery from acute high grade febrile illness of 3-4 days duration. Computerized tomographic scan of head showed bilateral necrosis of basal ganglia. We think that these patients probably constitute a clinically and radiologically distinct subgroup of disorder that produce bilateral striatal necrosis in children. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. ( info)

29/580. clozapine-associated extrapyramidal reaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of extrapyramidal reaction associated with a dosage increase of clozapine. CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old white man with a 20-year history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia was admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. His prior medications restarted on admission were clozapine 650 mg at bedtime, haloperidol 10 mg at bedtime, clonazepam 2 mg/d, and aspirin 325 mg/d. Two days after admission (hospital day 3), clozapine and clonazepam were discontinued, and he was prescribed haloperidol 5 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening. Stabilization occurred over the following 24 days, with progressively lower dosages of haloperidol and increasing dosages of clozapine. haloperidol was discontinued on day 24. On day 47, the patient was agitated and making bizarre statements; thus, the morning dose of clozapine was increased by 50 mg (total 450 mg/d). On day 48 at 2200, a dystonic reaction was diagnosed; he received intramuscular diphenhydramine 50 mg, which caused the reaction to subside. At the time of the adverse reaction, he was prescribed clozapine 450 mg/d, vitamin e 400 IU three times daily, aspirin 325 mg/d, and acetaminophen, milk of magnesia, and Maalox as needed. DISCUSSION: Although the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is significantly lower with clozapine than with conventional agents, elevated clozapine blood concentrations have been reported to cause EPS; other reports have cited severe dystonias and dyskinesias on abrupt clozapine withdrawal. Considering the medications prescribed at the time and the discontinuation of haloperidol 24 days before the event, clozapine was the most likely cause of the extrapyramidal reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of anticipated safety associated with novel antipsychotics such as clozapine, reports of dystonic reactions must be taken into account and patients monitored appropriately. ( info)

30/580. Bilateral basal ganglia-thalamic lesions subsequent to prolonged fetal bradycardia.

    We report two infants with bilateral basal ganglia-thalamic lesions subsequent to prolonged fetal bradycardia. Cardiotocogram revealed severe bradycardia lasting for more than 20 min in both. They demonstrated a significant encephalopathy, abnormal muscle tones and signs of brainstem injury. Clinical or electrical seizures were not observed in either of them. CT during early neonatal period demonstrated decreased tissue attenuation in basal ganglia and thalami in the absence of extensive cortical changes. Both of them developed severe mental retardation and quadriplegia. MRI in late infancy demonstrated abnormal high intensity areas in bilateral basal ganglia, thalami and around central sulci on T2-weighted image. Close correlation between prolonged fetal bradycardia and basal ganglia-thalamic lesion was suggested. ( info)
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