Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage"

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1/13. Bilateral basal ganglion haemorrhage in diabetic ketoacidotic coma: case report.

    We report bilateral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation in the basal ganglia of a 59-year old woman with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Lack of cerebral vascular autoregulation, followed by blood-brain barrier disruption due to the so-called breakthrough mechanism is presumed to be the cause. ( info)

2/13. Migraine associated bilateral intracerebral haemorrhages.

    The authors report a case of bilateral basal ganglionic haemorrhages which occurred during an attack of classical migraine. The patient had a history of migraine associated with aura of neurological deficit for 10 years and a history of arterial hypertension for 20 years, which was treated with propranolol. Intracerebral haemorrhage during an attack of migraine is very rare and up to now the existence of true migraine-induced intracerebral haemorrhage has been controversial. Our case of bilateral occurrence of the haemorrhages supports the theory of the existence of migraine-induced damage of the wall of intraparenchymal vessels during vasoconstriction and focal ischaemia at the beginning of a migraine attack. Subsequent vessel rupture may occur during the following period of increased cerebral blood flow especially with coexisting arterial hypertension. The terminology of the syndrome of migraine associated with intracerebral haemorrhage is reviewed. ( info)

3/13. Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis in basal ganglia and brainstem.

    Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and brainstem has only occasionally been described. Three such cases are reported. Cardiac arrest had occurred in all cases, and it took at least 1 hour to restore adequate circulation. The patients remained comatose for 2 days to 2 weeks until death. Persistent hypotension causing ischemia in the distribution of deep perforating arteries is considered to have been the key underlying mechanism. hemorrhage is thought to have been caused by extravasation of red blood cells through damaged blood vessels. ( info)

4/13. diffusion-weighted MRI as a screening tool of stroke in the ED.

    This report describes a novel imaging technology for the evaluation of stroke patients. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can visualize hyperacute ischemic stroke which cannot be seen on computed tomography; moreover, it only takes few minutes to scan. We believe that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, rather than routine computed tomography, should be considered when the emergency physician evaluates a patient with acute ischemic stroke. ( info)

5/13. Possible acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis manifesting as intracerebral hemorrhage on computed tomography--case report.

    A 15-year-old girl presented with meningeal irritation and bilateral cerebral signs after contracting influenza. A lumbar puncture revealed bloody cerebrospinal fluid and polymorphonuclear predominant pleocytosis with an elevated protein level and normal glucose level. Computed tomography showed a hematoma in the right basal ganglia and lateral ventricles. Symmetrical low density areas were also noted in the bilateral white matter. The preliminary diagnosis was hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease of unknown cause. However, her neurological condition deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed diffuse high intensity signals in the bilateral white matter and small spotty lesions, indicating hemorrhages in various stages. The final diagnosis was acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL). However, high-dose steroid administration and plasmapheresis failed to improve her condition. hypothermia could not control her intracranial pressure and she died 12 days after admission. The neuroimaging findings indicated the histological characteristics of AHL, but the hematoma formation is rare. AHL is a fulminant form of brain demyelination and can be fatal, so early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are important for successful recovery. Therefore, early investigation by MR imaging is necessary. ( info)

6/13. Tourettism and dystonia after subcortical stroke.

    The term "tourettism" has been used to describe tourette syndrome (TS)-like symptoms secondary to some specific cause. tics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or both, are commonly present in TS, but this constellation of symptoms has been rarely attributed to stroke. We describe two boys who suffered a subcortical stroke and subsequently developed hemidystonia, tics, and behavioral comorbidities. Both had right hemispheric stroke involving the basal ganglia at 8 years of age, and in both the latency from the stroke to the onset of left hemidystonia was 2 weeks. In addition to ADHD and OCD, both exhibited cranial-cervical motor tics but no phonic tics. The temporal relationship between the stroke and subsequent TS-like symptoms, as well as the absence of phonic tics and family history of TS symptoms in our patients, argues in favor of a cause and effect relationship, and the observed association provides evidence for an anatomic substrate for TS and related symptoms. ( info)

7/13. Development of de novo intracranial aneurysm in three months: case report and literature review.

    Summary: Formation of de novo intracranial aneurysms is rare. Their etiology is not known, but they are seen in patients with inherited collagen disorders, polycystic kidney disease, and familial history of aneurysms. Most de novo intracranial aneurysms are found 3-20 years after diagnosis of the initial aneurysm. We report the imaging findings in a 46-year-old man who developed a de novo intracranial aneurysm only 3 months after surgical clipping of another aneurysm. ( info)

8/13. basal ganglia hemorrhagic ablation associated with temporary suppression of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Currently, basal ganglia (BG) are considered regulators of motor and emotional activity. It's operationality encompass Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The case of a patient suffering with severe OCD is described of note, his symptoms disappeared following a hemorrhage of the left BG. However, once the hemorrhage was reabsorbed his symptoms returned. It is possible that lesions affecting cerebral OCD association circuits may influence the evolution of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. ( info)

9/13. diffusion MRI in the postmortem brain: case report.

    Postmortem brain of a ten-month-old child was examined by MR imaging, and diffusion MR imaging at the 12th hour after death in order to disclose the cause of death. There were basal ganglion lesions indicating a mitochondrial disorder. There was a prominent difference between the ADC values of the white matter (0.28 /-0.04 x 10(-3) mm2/s) and cortex (0.42 /-0.04 x 10(-3) mm2/s), and this was statistically significant (p< 0.0001). This difference suggested that in the postmortem brain the conditions in the white matter leading to restriction of movement of water molecules are more severe than that in the cortex. ( info)

10/13. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication.

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. ( info)
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