Cases reported "blast injuries"

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1/181. Multifocal cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal following blast injury.

    Posttraumatic cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare condition that may present years after the original injury. A unique case of multifocal cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal following blast injury is presented and discussed. ( info)

2/181. Treatment of casualties of military conflicts at the Critical medicine Clinic of the Central Hospital in georgia.

    INTRODUCTION: Local military conflicts continue in many areas of the world. These conflicts produce multiple casualties to military personnel and civilians. This paper describes one aspect of the medical care required for victims of the civil conflict in the Republic of georgia. methods: Interviews with patients and their accompanying persons and abstraction of medical records. RESULTS: Data were acquired on 108 victims admitted to the Center for Critical medicine in Tbilisi. Three stages in the care of these victims are described: 1) battlefield and transportation; 2) regional, front-line hospitals; and 3) the Central Hospital. The performance of each stage is described. Distribution of injuries and procedures performed in the third stage of treatment are described and survivors are defined. For illustration, two cases are reviewed in detail. CONCLUSIONS: The results are encouraging. Major problems existed in the treatment and evacuation of the wounded. Furthermore, many of the victims were injured because of their carelessness and lack of experience on the battlefield. ( info)

3/181. Effect of haemofiltration on pathological fibrinolysis due to severe sepsis: a case report.

    Bleeding due to coagulopathy is a frequent complication of severe sepsis, especially in burn patients. The primary treatment is aimed at the underlying cause but additional supportive measures, consisting mainly of coagulation factor replacement, are frequently necessary. We describe the salutary effect of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) with predilution on diffuse haemorrhage in a patient with severe septic shock and renal failure. The diffuse haemorrhage was initially treated with replacement of coagulation factors. prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time became normal while diffuse bleeding continued and the thrombelastogram showed evidence of fibrinolysis. A short period of CVVH lead to the cessation of bleeding which was reflected by a normal thrombelastogram. ( info)

4/181. arthroplasty after war injuries to major joints.

    From 1992 to 1995, replacement of the joint with an endoprosthesis after serious wounding and major destruction of joint elements was performed in 10 soldiers. arthroplasty was performed on five knees, three hips, and two shoulders. The age range of the wounded soldiers was 22 to 55 years (mean, 37.7 years). Six soldiers suffered explosive injuries, and 4 were injured by gunfire. Time elapsed from the moment of wounding to the time of total joint replacement was 9 to 42 months. We decided on arthroplasty as the preferred treatment because of the presence of strong contractures and very painful movement. In 8 patients, the results of the treatment, based on a follow-up time of 36 to 48 months, were good. In 2 patients, early septic arthritis developed after arthroplasty of the knee with concomitant loosening of the endoprosthesis. staphylococcus aureus was detected in both patients. In those 2 patients, therefore, arthrodesis of the knee with external fixation was performed. ( info)

5/181. Systolic pressure variation in hemodynamic monitoring after severe blast injury.

    Fluid management in patients following blast injury is a major challenge. Fluid overload can exacerbate pulmonary dysfunction, whereas suboptimal resuscitation may exacerbate tissue damage. In three patients, we compared three methods of assessing volume status: central venous (CVP) and pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOP) pressures, left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDA) as measured by transesophageal echocardiography, and systolic pressure variation (SPV) of arterial blood pressure. All three patients were mechanically ventilated with high airway pressures (positive end-expiratory pressure 13 to 15 cm H2O, pressure control ventilation of 25 to 34 cm H2O, and I:E 2:1). central venous pressure and PAOP were elevated in two of the patients (CVP 14 and 18 mmHg, PAOP 25 and 17 mmHg), and were within normal limits in the third (CVP 5 mmHg, PAOP 6 mmHg). Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in two patients and suggested a diagnosis of hypovolemia (LVEDA 2.3 and 2.7 cm2, shortening fraction 52% and 40%). Systolic pressure variation was elevated in all three patients (15 mmHg, 15 mmHg, and 20 mmHg), with very prominent dDown (23, 40, and 30 mmHg) and negative dUp components, thus corroborating the diagnosis of hypovolemia. Thus, in patients who are mechanically ventilated with high airway pressures, SPV may be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypovolemia. ( info)

6/181. Extensive facial damage caused by a blast injury arising from a 6 volt lead accumulator.

    Low-voltage electrical injuries are relatively uncommon. Injury caused by flow of heavy current due to short-circuiting a low-voltage battery has not been described in the English literature. A 9-year-old boy connected two thin household electrical wires to the two terminals of a 6 volt (lead accumulator) battery and pressed the other two ends between his teeth. This resulted in a blast causing a compound comminuted fracture of the mandible and extensive tissue damage in the oral cavity. The low internal resistance of a lead accumulator (approximately 0.03 ohms) permits the flow of a heavy current (approximately 200 amps) when short-circuited. This instantaneously vaporises a minuscule portion of wire at approximately 2000 K resulting in a sudden rise of intraoral pressure to 30 kg cm-2 leading to tissue damage. ( info)

7/181. Transoral missile removal from the anterior C1 region following transpharyngeal missile wound.

    We present a successful treatment result in a rare case of low velocity missile transpharyngeal wound to the upper cervical area in a 33-year-old man. There are very few reports concerning related cases, with some disagreement regarding their treatment. The retained missile was successfully removed from the anterior region of the C1 vertebra through a transoral-transpharyngeal approach using the explosive transpharyngeal wound sustained. Neurological status and spine stability were not affected due to the missile's low velocity. The early soft-tissue debridement, missile removal, pharyngeal closure without wound drainage and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage resulted in an uneventful postoperative course and good long-term outcome. Early surgery is important to prevent complications in such cases. However, the prophylactic tracheostomy, wound drainage and applying of a nasogastric tube could be left to the surgeon's judgment based on the individual patient's respiratory status, intraoperative findings and wound contamination/colonization. ( info)

8/181. An open fracture of the ulna with bone loss, treated by bone transport.

    We report a Gustilo and Anderson IIIc fracture of the ulna with 8 cm of bone loss which was reconstructed primarily by the technique of external fixation and bone transport. Five operations were performed over a period of 14 months (treatment index = 52.5 days/cm). A satisfactory functional result was achieved, demonstrating the efficacy of this technique for difficult forearm reconstructions and comparing favourably with other methods of managing large bone and soft tissue defects. ( info)

9/181. Argentine Jewish community institution bomb explosion.

    BACKGROUND: Descriptive study of physical injuries and implemented organization from a nearby, unwarned university hospital after the July 18, 1994, bombing of the seven-story Argentine Israeli Mutual association (AMIA) building in Buenos Aires. Data were obtained from hospital medical records. RESULTS: A total of 86 victims arrived at the emergency department, 2 victims were dead on arrival, 41 victims were admitted, and 43 victims with minor injuries were assisted and allowed to go home. The explosion caused a total of 86 deaths and left more than 200 people injured. mortality rate among hospitalized survivors was 8.3% and among critically injured victims was 28.6%. CONCLUSION: The total collapse of a multiple-story building immediately kills most of its occupants. In the present study, the few surviving victims were located at the lower floors. The majority of hospitalized victims were outside the building at the moment of the blast. Rapid overcrowding of the emergency department with minor and moderate injuries that do not require hospitalization should be anticipated by disaster management plans. Centralization of severely injured patients in critical areas seems appropriate, because this method keeps major cases from spreading through different wards. ( info)

10/181. Penetrating head injuries caused by a new weapon, the side dome.

    The "side dome" is a mix of high and low explosives with a multitude of small metal balls molded within a specially designed half-sphere that directs the explosion wave and the projectiles in one direction to augment the harm. This weapon, originally designed by guerrilla and terrorist groups, is now used by regular armies. This report presents one craniocervical and eight cranial injuries caused by this new weapon and discusses the cases' various clinical features, the paucity of intracerebral cavitation damage along the missile track, the need for only minimally aggressive surgery, and the relatively favorable outcome. In all cases, the helmet offered good protection and the entry of the projectiles was just below its rim in an upward direction. ( info)
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