Cases reported "Blepharophimosis"

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1/79. blepharophimosis syndrome (the syndrome of blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis and epicanthus inversus).

    The syndrome of blepharophemosis, blepharoptosis and epicanthus inversus is described in a female neonate who was admitted to the Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital (ESCH) in Jan 1996 at birth. The clinical features and mode of transmission of the syndrome is discussed. ( info)

2/79. Bilateral granulosa cell tumor in a patient with blepharophimosis syndrome.

    blepharophimosis syndrome is a rare, autosominal, dominant ocular disorder and has been reported to be associated with ovarian dysfunction and premature menopause. We report a case of bilateral granulosa cell tumor associated with blepharophimosis syndrome. The combination of the long-term hypergonadotrophism and oocyte depletion associated with blepharophimosis syndrome may have contributed to the pathogenesis of the granulosa cell tumors. In female patients with blepharophimosis syndrome, close gynecologic surveillance should be instituted. ( info)

3/79. Proximal symphalangism and congenital conductive hearing loss: otologic aspects.

    OBJECTIVE: Results of stapedectomy are reported in a Belgian 26-year-old woman and two Dutch brothers having the proximal symphalangism syndrome (McKusick 18580). STUDY DESIGN: case reports are presented. A review of the results of ear surgery for congenital conductive hearing loss in this syndrome is given. SETTING: The Belgian patient was treated in a general hospital. The Dutch patients were treated in a university hospital, which was a tertiary referral center. patients: patients were referred to have an evaluation of their hearing impairment. INTERVENTION: Based on the syndromal diagnosis and based on routine audiometric tests, a congenital ossicular fixation was considered to be the cause of the hearing loss. By exploratory tympanotomies, this was confirmed. Reconstructive procedures including stapedotomy were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/RESULTS: Long-term audiometric data are presented to evaluate the outcome of the surgical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital stapes ankylosis eventually combined with a congenital fixation of the short process of the incus in the fossa incudis, causing the congenital conductive hearing loss. Surgical intervention is very successful in most reported cases, but negative side effects are incidentally found as well. ( info)

4/79. "Essentially pure" partial trisomy (6)(p23-->pter) in two brothers due to maternal t(6;17)(p23;p13.3).

    We report on two brothers with low birth weight, growth retardation, microcephaly, minor facial anomalies, mental retardation, and trisomy (6)(p23-->pter) due to a maternal t(6;17)(p23;p13.3). As demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the Miller-Dieker cosmid probe (D17S379) and with a subtelomeric probe (D17S34) the additional deletion on 17p13 is very small, and therefore, the phenotype of these two boys is most likely the result of essentially pure partial trisomy 6p. Comparison of the clinical findings with those of ten cases from the literature of dup(6p) with a breakpoint in or more distal to 6p23 allows delineation of a specific phenotype of dup(6)(p23-->pter) characterized by low birth weight, growth retardation, microcephaly, and blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, microstomia, and abnormal ears. ( info)

5/79. Blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome in two Mexican patients.

    The combination of lagophthalmia, ectropion of the lower eyelids, distichiasis, euryblepharon, cleft lip/palate, and oligodontia was recently named blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome. Different combinations of these signs have been found sporadically, with autosomal dominant inheritance. ectropion of the lower eyelids, lagophthalmia, and bilateral cleft lip/palate appear to be the more common manifestations. We report on two unrelated patients with bilateral cleft lip/palate and lagophthalmia. One of these two patients had familial cleft lip/palate in two generations, probably as a variable expression of an autosomal dominant gene. ( info)

6/79. Apparent cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) embryopathy: a distinct phenotype?

    cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent widely used in treating cancer and autoimmune disease. CP is classified as a pregnancy risk factor D drug and is teratogenic in animals, but population studies have not conclusively demonstrated teratogenicity in humans. Six isolated reports of prenatally exposed infants with various congenital anomalies exist, but to date no specific phenotype has been delineated. The purpose of this report is to document a new case of in utero CP exposure with multiple congenital anomalies and to establish an apparent CP embryopathy phenotype. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and cyclophosphamide exposure in the first trimester. She also took nifedipine, atenolol, clonidine, prednisone, aspirin, and potassium chloride throughout pregnancy. The infant had growth retardation and multiple anomalies including microbrachycephaly, coronal craniosynostosis, hypotelorism, shallow orbits, proptosis, blepharophimosis, small, abnormal ears, unilateral preauricular pit, broad, flat nasal bridge, microstomia, high-arched palate, micrognathia, preaxial upper limb and postaxial lower limb defects consisting of hypoplastic thumbs, and bilateral absence of the 4th and 5th toes. chromosomes were apparently normal. The reported cases of in utero exposure to cyclosposphamide shared the following manifestations with our patient: growth deficiency, developmental delay, craniosynostosis, blepharophimosis, flat nasal bridge, abnormal ears, and distal limb defects including hypoplastic thumbs and oligodactyly. We conclude that (a) cyclophosphamide is a human teratogen, (b) a distinct phenotype exists, and (c) the safety of CP in pregnancy is in serious question. ( info)

7/79. blepharophimosis, minor facial anomalies, genital anomalies, and mental retardation: report of two sibs with a unique syndrome.

    We report on two sibs, a 2.5-year-old girl and a 10-month-old boy, with a hitherto unreported combination of congenital anomalies: blepharophimosis, ptosis, midface hypoplasia, abnormal palate, low anterior and posterior hairlines, displaced hair whorl, apparently low-set and abnormally shaped ears, trigonocephaly, dental anomalies, laryngomalacia, sensorineural hearing loss, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The occurrence of a similar pattern of anomalies in two sibs of opposite sex suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. To our knowledge, this combination of anomalies has not been reported previously, and thus we propose it to be a formal genesis syndrome. ( info)

8/79. Congenital blepharophimosis and ptosis in a mentally retarded girl: a new case of Ohdo syndrome?

    A mentally retarded girl with congenital blepharophimosis, ptosis, abnormal teeth and other features consistent with Ohdo syndrome is reported. ( info)

9/79. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation in a patient with a translocation (3;21) associated with blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES).

    blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome type I (BPES; OMIM 110100) is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting craniofacial development and ovarian function. We have identified a patient with BPES who carried a de novo reciprocal translocation [46, XX,t(3;21)(q23;q22.1)]. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis at band 3q23 using probes derived from BAC 175G20 (research Genetics), PACs 108L15 and 169C10 (RPCI1), and cosmids AC174D4, AC68D3, AC44F5, and AC125C5 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) was performed. The patient's breakpoint was found to lie within the overlapping region of the BAC and PACs but centromeric to all the cosmids. However, a 10.5-kb BamHI-digested fragment, common to the BAC and PAC clones, was shown to cross the breakpoint. The results have placed our patient's breakpoint proximal to that of the previously reported patient [46,XY,t(3;4)(q23;p15.2)] and within a 10.5-kb interval. This is the second patient in which a breakpoint was refined by molecular cytogenetics. Our findings emphasize the significance of this region for BPES. ( info)

10/79. Marden-Walker syndrome: case report, nosologic discussion and aspects of counseling.

    The Marden-Walker syndrome is characterized by a mask-like face with blepharophimosis, micrognathia, cleft or high-arched palate, low-set ears, congenital joint contractures, decreased muscular mass, failure to thrive and psychomotor retardation. We report a boy with a phenotype mostly resembling the condition named Marden-Walker syndrome, with many of the criteria proposed for diagnosing this particular phenotype. In addition he had hypoplastic corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, enlarged cisterna magna and vertebral abnormalities. During pregnancy there were reduced fetal movements. In the present patient the fetal hypokinesia sequence, due to central nervous system malformation, is most compatible with the diagnosis of Marden-Walker syndrome. The etiology is probably heterogeneous, but the possibility of autosomal recessive inheritance should be considered in genetic counseling. ( info)
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