Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/7687. endodermal sinus tumor of the pineal region: case report.

    This is a case report of an endodermal sinus tumor occurring in the pineal region of a 12-year-old Caucasian boy. Germ cell tumors of this type demonstrate a selective overgrowth of yolk sac endoderm associated with extraembryonic mesoblast and arise perferentially in the gonads of young children. This is the ninth known report of this tumor in the world literature. Its occurrence in the posterior third ventricle again confirms that pineal region germ cell tumors are histologically analogous to germ cell tumors originating in the gonads. A disturbance in the region of the primitive streak is thought to account for the exclusive midline location of this tumor in extragonadal sites. This patient was treated with a combination of vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide, and concomitant cobalt irradiation. For endodermal sinus tumors in the pineal region, this combination appears more effective than previously reported treatment by irradiation alone. ( info)

2/7687. Brain metastasis from prostatic carcinoma.

    Between 1959 and 1971 there were 91 patients with clinically diagnosed prostatic carcinoma who were autopsied at Roswell Park Memorial Institute. In four of these 91 (4.4%) intracerebral metastasis were found at autopsy, but only in one of these four was the diagnosis arrived at pre-mortem. This report describes the diagnosis and management of intracerebral metastasis from prostate carcinoma. It appears, on the basis of our initial experience, that the clinical diagnosis of this entity deserves more frequent consideration. ( info)

3/7687. Transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature: the question of non-convulsive seizure paralysis.

    Eleven patients with transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature are described. paralysis could involve face or leg alone, face and hand, or face, arm and leg. The duration varied from two minutes to one day. Four patients had brain tumors, six probably had brain infarcts, and one a degenerative process. The differential diagnosis included TIAs, migraine accompaniments, and seizures. In the absence of good evidence for the first two, the cases are discussed from the standpoint of possibly representing nonconvulsive seizure paralysis (ictal paralysis, inhibitory seizure paralysis or somatic inhibitory seizure). Because of the difficulty in defining seizures as well as TIAs and migraine in their atypical variations, a firm conclusion concerning the mechanisms of the spells was not attained. Two cases of the hypertensive amaurosis-seizure syndrome have been added as further examples of ictal deficits. ( info)

4/7687. Intracranial hemorrhage due to cerebral metastasis of lung cancer - a case report.

    lung cancer often metastasizes to brain. However, hemorrhage of the metastatic lesions is uncommon. We report a case of a 68-year old man with lung cancer who underwent right upper lobectomy of the lung and presented in 15 months with a cerebral hemorrhage from a metastatic lesion of the brain. ( info)

5/7687. Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy.

    Brain tumors are a common cause of seizures in children. Early surgical treatment can improve seizure outcome, but controversy exists regarding the most appropriate type of surgical intervention. Some studies suggest tumor resection alone is sufficient, while others recommend mapping and resection of the surrounding epileptogenic foci to optimize seizure outcome. To address this issue, we reviewed the charts of 34 pediatric patients aged 18 months to 20 years with medically intractable epilepsy and primary brain tumors. The average age at operation was 12.6 years, and patients had seizures for an average of 6.4 years. The majority of tumors were located in the temporal lobe. Seventeen patients, because of tumor location near an eloquent area, underwent extraoperative mapping using subdural electrode grids prior to definitive tumor resection. Fourteen of these patients had a gross total tumor resection, yet only two had a distinct zone of ictal onset identified and resected. The remaining 17 patients had tumors either in the nondominant hemisphere or far removed from speech-sensitive areas, and therefore did not undergo extraoperative subdural electroencephalograph mapping. Fourteen of these patients also had a gross total tumor resection, while none had intraoperative electrocorticography to guide the resection of additional nontumoral tissue. overall, of the 28 patients treated with a gross total tumor resection, 24 (86%) are seizure free, while the other four are significantly improved. Of the six patients who had a subtotal tumor removal, five have persistent seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years. We conclude that in children and adolescents, completeness of tumor resection is the most important factor in determining seizure outcome. The routine mapping and resection of epileptogenic foci might not be necessary in the majority of patients. As a corollary, the use of subdural electrode grids in pediatric patients with tumor-associated epilepsy should be limited to cases requiring extraoperative cortical stimulation for localization of nearby eloquent cortex. ( info)

6/7687. Complete paraplegia due to multiple intracerebral and spinal cavernomas.

    We report on a 29-year-old male patient with multiple intracerebral and spinal cavernomas. Bleeding in the thoracic cord at admission and additional bleeding which occurred 12 days later in the cervical cord resulted in complete paraplegia below thoracic level 4 (Th4). Four years earlier multiple cerebral cavernomas had been diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Based upon reported cases in the literature multiple intracerebral and spinal cavernomas are exceptional. Additionally, the clinical presentation in our case is uncommon. ( info)

7/7687. Lymphomatosis cerebri presenting as a rapidly progressive dementia: clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic findings.

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) usually presents with clinical and neuroimaging findings consistent with single or multiple intracranial mass lesions. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such lesions are nearly always contrast enhancing, reflecting disruption of the blood-brain barrier at the site of tumor nodules. We describe 2 cases from the UCLA Medical Center who developed a rapidly progressive dementia due to extensive gray and white matter cerebral lesions involving much of the brain. In the patient who came to autopsy, widely infiltrating, focally necrotic B-cell plasmacytoid lymphoma was noted throughout the cerebral neuraxis. MRI findings in case 2 were consistent with diffuse lymphomatous brain infiltration without mass lesions, which was biopsy proven. We conclude that PCNSL may occur in a diffusely infiltrating form which may occur without MRI evidence of mass lesions or blood-brain barrier compromise. We refer to this entity as 'lymphomatosis cerebri' and add it to the differential diagnosis of a rapidly progressive dementia. ( info)

8/7687. tuberculoma of the pons.

    A case of a pontine tuberculoma in a 12-year-old male from somalia is presented. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging, performed in Abu Dhabi 1 month before admission in germany revealed a tumorous lesion in the pons with surrounding edema; a presumptive diagnosis of a pontine glioma was made. Chest radiograph disclosed a pulmonary infiltrate with cavitation, as well as hilar and left mediastinal lymphadenopathy, suggestive of active tuberculosis. Tuberculostatic therapy led to an improvement of the patient's clinical status and a significant reduction in the size of the pontine tuberculoma. Intracranial tuberculomas rarely are seen in industrialized countries. They should, however, be considered as an important part of the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions. In most cases, as in this patient, conservative therapy provides good or excellent results. ( info)

9/7687. Cervicomedullary astrocytoma simulating a neuromuscular disorder.

    A 12-year-old male developed progressive proximal upper extremity weakness over a 3- to 4-year period. The clinical findings of proximal upper extremity weakness and atrophy, prominent scapular winging, and no sensory deficits or upper motor neuron signs suggested a neuromuscular disorder. electromyography was consistent with a chronic denervating disorder involving the upper cervical anterior horn cells or their axons. A cervical magnetic resonance image revealed a large intramedullary mass extending from the inferior aspect of the fourth ventricle down to the level of T2. A biopsy of the lesion was consistent with a low-grade astrocytoma. ( info)

10/7687. Complete remission of a diffuse pontine glioma.

    A patient is described in whom a large diffuse glioma of the pons extending into the midbrain was diagnosed at the age of 2 years. biopsy showed a fibrillary astrocytoma. After shunting of a hydrocephalus, the clinical symptoms abated without conventional therapy. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease of the tumour which was no longer visible when the patient was 6.6 years old. In reviews on spontaneous remissions of oncologic disorders we were unable to find a case of a biologically benign brain stem tumour. There is one isolated report on a similar case, though without histologic documentation. ( info)
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