Cases reported "Cadaver"

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1/473. Serratus anterior-rib composite flap: anatomic studies and clinical application to hand reconstruction.

    Because of its relative ease of dissection, increased length of the vascular pedicle, and excellent diameter for anastomosis, the serratus anterior-rib composite flap has been used to reconstruct bony and soft-tissue defects in the face and lower extremities. However, no data are available on optimal rib level or harvest location. The authors report the results of the vascular anatomy of this flap in 6 fresh cadavers and 2 clinical patients using this flap to reconstruct a defect in the hand. Arteriograms were performed through the thoracodorsal artery, and microscopic dissections were done at the rib periosteum. The sixth through the ninth ribs showed consistent filling of their respective intercostal vessels. The rib segments near the anterior axillary line had the most abundant communicating vessels between the serratus and the periosteum. In two patients, the serratus-rib composite free flap provided excellent bone and muscle length for reconstructing the first metacarpal defect. ( info)

2/473. cyclosporine disposition and long-term renal function in a 500-pound kidney transplant recipient.

    Patient size has been suggested as a risk factor in kidney transplantation. We have followed a recipient of a cadaver kidney who became massively obese (232 kg, 511 lbs) 5 years posttransplantation. He has maintained stable renal function with no rejection episodes and at 5 years has a measured serum creatinine of 2.2 mg/dL, creatinine clearance 42 mL/min, and urinary protein excretion of 320 mg/24h. Both oral and intravenous cyclosporine (Sandimmune) pharmacokinetic studies were done on a steady-state dose of 150 mg, which represents 0.65 mg/kg per dose. The patient exhibited very high bioavailability, F = 95%, and an oral elimination T1/2 of over 21 hours. These data confirm that stable cyclosporine delivery in very obese recipients can be sustained by dosing normalized to the ideal body weight and trough level monitoring. ( info)

3/473. Procuring organs from a non-heart-beating cadaver: a case report.

    organ transplantation is an accepted therapy for major organ failure, but it depends on the availability of viable organs. Most organs transplanted in the U.S. come from either "brain-dead" or living related donors. Recently organ procurement from patients pronounced dead using cardiopulmonary criteria, so-called "non-heart-beating cadaver donors" (NHBCDs), has been reconsidered. In May 1992, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) enacted a new, complicated policy for procuring organs from NHBCDs after the elective removal of life support. Seventeen months later only one patient has become a NHBCD. This article describes her case and the results of interviews with the health care team and the patient's family. The case and interviews are discussed in relation to several of the ethical concerns previously raised about the policy, including potential conflicts of interest, the definition of cardiopulmonary death, and a possible net decrease in organ donation. The conclusion is reached that organ procurement from non-heart-beating cadavers is feasible and may be desirable both for the patient's family and the health care providers. ( info)

4/473. Distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella. A case report and an experimental study.

    A 12-year-old boy presented with a proximally retracted patella 5 months after an injury to the left knee. The clinical and radiographic features and the findings at operation led to the conclusion that the original lesion had been a distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella, produced by the medial and lateral longitudinal patellar retinacula. Loading experiments on amputation and cadaver specimens showed that these retinacula, apart from being tendons for the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis, respectively, constitute a direct fibrous connection of considerable strength between the patella and the tibia and thus are capable of producing avulsion fractures. ( info)

5/473. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with florid-type plaques after cadaveric dura mater grafting.

    BACKGROUND: Many reported cases of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) developed after grafting cadaveric dura mater contaminated with CJD prions (dura-associated CJD). They are known to be clinicopathologically similar to sporadic CJD. We report herein 2 autopsy cases of dura-associated CJD with atypical clinicopathological features. patients: Two patients presented with progressive ataxia and mental deterioration 10 or 11 years after neurosurgical treatment with cadaveric dural grafting, which led to their deaths at 8 and 17 months, respectively, after onset. RESULTS: The cases were clinically atypical in exhibiting no or late occurrence of myoclonus and periodic synchronous discharges on electroencephalographic studies. They were pathologically unique in several aspects. The most striking feature was the presence of many prion protein (PrP) plaques in multiple areas in the brain. Some of them were the "florid" type surrounded by a zone of spongiform changes known to be a hallmark for the new variant CJD. The distribution of spongiform degeneration was also unique in that it was intense in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum but milder in the cerebrum. There were no mutations in the PrP gene of the patients. There was no major difference in the size and glycoform pattern between the abnormal isoform of PrP extracted from the brain tissue from the dura-associated cases of CJD and that from a sporadic case of CJD. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases are clinicopathologically distinct from typical dura-associated cases of CJD. They may be a subtype with florid-type plaques in dura-associated CJD. ( info)

6/473. Diffuse glomerular basement membrane lamellation in renal allografts from pediatric donors to adult recipients.

    The transplantation of kidneys from pediatric cadaveric donors into adult recipients is performed in many centers. However, some studies indicate that the outcome of such renal transplants may be inferior compared with that of adult donors, particularly if the donor is an infant. Morphologic studies of failed pediatric donor kidneys in adult recipients describe various degrees of segmental or global glomerular sclerosis. The authors have performed ultrastructural examinations on such transplants and have identified six cases with diffuse irregular lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a change that may develop as early as 10 weeks after transplantation. The age of all donors was < or =6 years; three were infants. The incidence of the lesion was 9% at our institution in renal transplant patients who received a graft from donors <10 years old. Diffuse GBM lamellation has not been found in renal transplants from adult donors. light microscopy showed various degrees of diffuse mesangial expansion, usually with segmental glomerular sclerosis. The patients had severe proteinuria. While recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) has to be excluded, such diffuse GBM lamellation is generally not seen in recurrent FSGS cases. The pathogenesis of the lesion is most likely related to hyperperfusion injury of small pediatric donor kidneys grafted into adult recipients. ( info)

7/473. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a need for caution in live-related renal transplantation.

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has increasingly been recognized to occur in a familial pattern. We have observed the development of biopsy-confirmed FSGS and subsequent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in one live related kidney donor and ESRD without biopsy in another. Both donors had family members with ESRD secondary to FSGS. Both donors were apparently healthy by routine physical examination, urinalysis, and serum creatinine at the time of evaluation as live related donors. We believe these cases emphasize the need for great caution when evaluating siblings as potential live related donors. ( info)

8/473. Biomodel-guided stereotaxy.

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the practice of stereotactic surgery by using an original method, apparatus, and solid anatomic replica for trajectory planning and to validate the method and apparatus in a laboratory and clinical trial. methods: The patient is marked with fiducials and scanned by using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The three-dimensional data are converted to a format acceptable to stereolithography. Stereolithography uses a laser to polymerize photosensitive resin into a solid plastic model (biomodel). Stereolithography can replicate blood vessels, soft tissue, tumor, and bone accurately (<0.8 mm). A stereotactic apparatus is referenced to fiducials replicated in the biomodel. The trajectory for the intervention is determined and saved. The apparatus is attached to the patient fiducials, and the intervention is replicated. RESULTS: Three types of apparatus (template, Brown-Roberts-Wells frame, and D'Urso frame) were tested on phantoms and patients requiring the excision/biopsy of tumors. The localization errors determined from the phantom studies were template, 0.82 mm; Brown-Roberts-Wells frame, 1.17 mm; and D'Urso frame, 0.89 mm. The surgeons reported that clinical use of the template and D'Urso frame was accurate and ergonomic. The Brown-Roberts-Wells frame was more difficult to use and somewhat inaccurate. CONCLUSION: Biomodel-guided stereotaxy has significant advantages. It is performed quickly; it is based on simple, intuitive methodology; it enhances visualization of anatomy and trajectory planning; it enhances patient understanding; it uses inexpensive equipment; it does not require rigid head fixation; and it has greater versatility than known techniques. Disadvantages are biomodel cost and a manufacturing time of 12 to 24 hours. ( info)

9/473. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy following placement of the compass elbow hinge for acute instability: a case report.

    We describe a case of posterior interosseous nerve palsy that developed after application of a hinged elbow external fixation device. Our hypothesis that forearm pronation during ulnar half pin insertion may have been causative is supported by anatomic findings noted during subsequent cadaveric dissection. Based on our observations we recommend that the ulnar half pins required with this device be inserted with the forearm in supination. ( info)

10/473. Initial experience with processed human cadaveric allograft skin for reconstruction of the corpus cavernosum in repair of distal extrusion of a penile prosthesis.

    We describe our initial experience with the novel application of processed human cadaveric allograft skin in reconstruction of a damaged corpus cavernosum associated with distal extrusion of a penile prosthesis. The material was evaluated for ease of reconstruction, adequacy of repair, and outcome. Human processed dermis allograft requires no intraoperative harvesting, is technically easy to fashion, and offers adequate tensile strength in the reconstruction of damaged corpora cavernosa. This initial experience with processed human cadaveric dermis in reconstruction of damaged corpora cavernosa is encouraging. Further evaluation to define the long-term efficacy and scope of application of this material in urologic reconstructive procedures is warranted. ( info)
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