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1/28. Renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in childhood: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature.

    We analysed retrospectively 11 children with renal granulomatous sarcoidosis confirmed by renal histology in order to describe the course and prognosis of the disease. Symptomatic sarcoidosis was diagnosed at a mean age of 10.1 years. Nine children had renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. In the course of the disease, nine patients developed renal failure and mild proteinuria, seven had transient sterile leukocyturia, four showed microscopic haematuria, seven had a urinary concentrating defect, and enlarged kidneys were seen in three patients. One child had hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, none had hypertension. light microscopy of the kidney showed interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells in all children, interstitial fibrosis in nine patients, epithelioid granulomas in seven, tubular involvement in eight, and mild glomerular involvement in seven patients. Renal immunofluorescence was negative. Ten children received prednisone for 1-11 years. After a mean follow up of 5.5 years, three patients had entered end-stage renal failure and one had chronic insufficiency after interruption of medical supervision and prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: Renal failure, proteinuria, leukocyturia, haematuria, and concentration defect are the prominent features of renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in children. Steroid therapy, adjusted according to disease activity, may prevent end-stage renal failure. ( info)

2/28. Successful pregnancy outcome in a woman with a gain-of-function mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene have recently been identified as a cause of familial hypercalciuric hypocalcemia. There have been no earlier reported cases of pregnancy among patients with this disorder. CASE: A 26-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 0, was diagnosed at age 18 as being a heterozygous carrier of a mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Stable maternal hypocalcemia was achieved during pregnancy with high-dose calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy. prenatal diagnosis was accomplished via amniocentesis at 16 weeks' gestation. The patient underwent cesarean delivery at 35 5/7 weeks' gestation after developing the hellp syndrome. CONCLUSION: patients with mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor may have a successful pregnancy outcome. This abnormality may be transmitted to the fetus via an autosomal dominant pattern. ( info)

3/28. Disorders of maternal calcium metabolism implicated by abnormal calcium metabolism in the neonate.

    Normal fetal and neonatal calcium homeostasis is dependent upon an adequate supply of calcium from maternal sources. Both maternal hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia can cause metabolic bone disease or disorders of calcium homeostasis in neonates. Maternal hypercalcemia can suppress fetal parathyroid function and cause neonatal hypocalcemia. Conversely, maternal hypocalcemia can stimulate fetal parathyroid tissue causing bone demineralization. We report two asymptomatic women, one with previously unrecognized hypoparathyroidism and the other with unrecognized familial benign hypercalcemia, who were diagnosed when their newborn infants presented with abnormalities of calcium metabolism. J.B. was born at 34 weeks' gestation with transient hyperbilirubinemia and thrombocytopenia. At 1 month of age he had severe bone demineralization, cortical irregularities, widening and cupping of the metaphyses, and lucent bands in the scapulae. The total serum calcium and phosphorus were normal with an ionized calcium of 5.4 mg/dL (4.6-5.4). His alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were all increased. P.B., mother of J.B., had no symptoms of hypocalcemia either prior to, or during this pregnancy. She had severe hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, laboratory values typical of hypoparathyroidism. J.N. presented at 6 weeks of age with new onset of seizures and tetany secondary to severe hypocalcemia. The serum phosphorus, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. At 15 weeks of age his calcium was slightly elevated with a low fractional excretion of calcium. P.N., mother of J.N., had no symptoms of hypercalcemia either prior to, or during this pregnancy. Her serum calcium was 12.7 mg/dL and urine calcium was 66.5 mg/24 hr, with a low fractional excretion of calcium ranging from 0.0064 to 0.0073. P.N. has a brother who previously had parathyroid surgery. Both J.N. and P.N. meet the diagnostic criteria for familial benign hypercalcemia. These cases illustrate the important relationships between maternal serum calcium levels and neonatal calcium homeostasis. They emphasize the need to assess maternal calcium levels when infants are born with abnormal serum calcium levels or metabolic bone disease. ( info)

4/28. Idiopathic external root resorption associated to hypercalciuria.

    Although external root resorption (ERR) is a physiological process in deciduous dentition, it is very infrequent in permanent dentition - where the phenomenon is related to the existence of inadequate occlusal forces, periodontal pathology and microtraumatisms, etc. However, in many cases root resorption cannot be attributed to any concrete cause; such cases are defined as idiopathic external root resorption (IERR). Epidemiological studies have found that the underlying cause can only be established in 5% of all ERR. The present study describes three cases of IERR with different degrees of involvement and associated to mild calciuria and a history of nephrolithiasis. hypercalciuria with normal blood calcium levels is usually idiopathic and exhibits a familial trait, with a prevalence of 20-40 cases per 1,000 individuals in adults. A form of hypercalciuria associated to nephrolithiasis with a mutation of the CLCN5 gene has been identified, involving low molecular weight proteinuria - though this mutation has not been uniformly demonstrated in most cases of idiopathic hypercalciuria. The peculiarity of the cases described in the present study is attributable to the coexistence of IERR with normocalcemic hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis - thus pointing to the need for in-depth evaluation of the possible association of these three clinical situations. ( info)

5/28. Curative effects of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on calcium metabolism and bone disease in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Synthetic 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1alpha-OH-D3) was given intravenously in a dose of 2.5-10 mug per day to three patients with chronic renal failure. As little as 10 mug of 1alpha-OH-D3 daily for a week improved intestinal calcium absorption to a normal level, raised serum calcium, and reduced serum alkaline phosphatase. Severe rickets which had not responded to large amounts (greater than 200 mg in total) of vitamin D2 was markedly cured with 2.5 mug of 1alpha-OH-D3 given daily for 3 weeks. These clinical data hold promise that is certainly useful in the improvement of intestinal malabsorption of calcium and bone diseases in renal failure. ( info)

6/28. Tumoral calcinosis of the gluteal region in a child: case report with overview of different soft-tissue calcifications.

    Tumoral calcinosis is a distinct clinical and histologic entity that is characterized by a large deposition of calcium that resembles a neoplasm and is found predominantly in adolescents and young adults in the periarticular tissues of large joints. The authors describe the clinical presentation of a 15-year-old boy admitted at our pediatric day-surgery center for surgical management of tumoral calcinosis of the left gluteal region. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. ( info)

7/28. Successful pregnancy in a woman with congenital "Swiss-cheese" platelets. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Congenital "Swiss-cheese" platelets are a rare disorder of platelet function due to impaired calcium mobilization. Management of pregnancy in patients with this disorder had not been reported previously. CASE: Successful pregnancy occurred in a woman with congenital Swiss-cheese platelets. Neither the mother nor neonate experienced any hemorrhagic complications. CONCLUSION: Successful pregnancy is possible in women with congenital Swiss-cheese platelets. The lack of hemorrhagic complications may be due to the increase in platelet intracellular free calcium concentration during pregnancy. ( info)

8/28. Examination of megalin in renal tubular epithelium from patients with dent disease.

    dent disease is characteristic for the urinary loss of low-molecular-weight proteins and calcium, leading to renal calcification and, in some patients, chronic renal failure. This disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the renal chloride channel gene, CLCN5. The animal model of this disease has demonstrated the possible role of disturbed megalin expression, which is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and is associated with renal reabsorption of a variety of proteins, in dent disease. We examined the expression of megalin in the renal tubular epithelium of two unrelated patients with dent disease. One patient, whose CLCN5 gene was completely deleted, showed significantly decreased staining of megalin compared with controls, while there was no change in another patient with partial deletion of the gene. These results demonstrated that mutation of CLCN5 in some patients with dent disease may impair the expression of megalin, resulting in abnormal calcium metabolism, manifested as hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. ( info)

9/28. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis associated with CLDN16 mutations.

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder, is characterized by the impaired tubular reabsorption of magnesium and calcium in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle and an eventual progression to end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have reported that this disease is caused by mutations in the CLDN16 gene, which encodes the tight junction protein, paracellin-1. Paracellin-1 belongs to the claudin family and regulates the paracellular transport of magnesium and calcium. Here, we report on two Korean siblings with typical clinical features of FHHNC in association with compound heterozygous mutations, G233C and 800delG, in CLDN16. Their parents were asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of the single mutations. This is the first report of FHHNC in korea, and the mutations reported are novel. ( info)

10/28. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: blocking endocytosis restores surface expression of a novel Claudin-16 mutant that lacks the entire C-terminal cytosolic tail.

    Mutations in the gene for Claudin-16 (CLDN16) are linked to familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), a renal Mg2 and Ca2 wasting disorder that leads to progressive kidney failure. More than 20 mutations have been identified in CLDN16, which, with a single exception, affect one of two extracellular loops or one of four transmembrane domains of the encoded protein. Here, we describe a novel missense mutation, Cldn16 L203X, which deletes the entire C-terminal cytosolic domain of the protein. Surface expression of Cldn16 L203X is strongly reduced and the protein is instead found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. ER-retained Cldn16 L203X is subject to proteasomal degradation. Cldn16 L203X present in lysosomes reaches this compartment following transport to the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis increases surface expression of Cldn16 L203X. Thus, endocytosis inhibitors may provide a novel therapeutic approach for FHHNC patients carrying particular Cldn16 mutations. ( info)
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