Cases reported "Caliciviridae Infections"

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1/8. High level excretion of Norwalk-like virus following resolution of clinical illness.

    We report the case of an elderly woman excreting high levels (about 5 x 10(5) virions per gram of faeces) of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in the absence of any clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis. Analysis by reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing was carried out on a 342-nucleotide region of open reading frame 1. This indicated that the NLV belonged to genogroup 2 and was more closely related to the Camberwell subgroup, the most common circulating in southeast australia at present, than to the Norwalk and mexico viruses. ( info)

2/8. Calicivirus enteritis in an intestinal transplant recipient.

    Protracted diarrhea of uncertain etiology is a significant problem following intestinal transplantation. We report an infant who developed severe secretory diarrhea 178 days after intestinal transplantation that persisted for more than 120 days. Repeated allograft biopsies demonstrated only nonspecific inflammation. Enzyme immunoassay (for rotavirus), culture, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [calicivirus (Norwalk-like virus)] were used to identify the allograft viral infection. A heavy density of calicivirus rna nucleotide sequences (genogroup II, strain Miami Beach) was isolated from the jejunal and ileal allograft. Following a reduction in immunosuppressive therapy, diarrhea and enteritis remitted in association with the disappearance of all calicivirus rna sequences. Calicivirus may cause severe allograft dysfunction in intestinal transplant recipients. ( info)

3/8. Viral gastroenteritis--a danger to the patient, a danger to the staff.

    Viral gastroenteritis is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. We report a case of a previously well 74-year-old woman who suffered a grave complication of this common condition, and caused a significant outbreak of illness amongst staff involved in her care. This case highlights the risks of Hospital Acquired Infection and raises important infection control issues. It illustrates the hazards associated with exposure to potentially infectious secretions and presents a clear message to medical and nursing staff involved in the care of the acute surgical emergency. ( info)

4/8. Characteristics of human calicivirus enteritis in intestinal transplant recipients.

    OBJECTIVES: The human caliciviruses, which include Norwalk-like viruses (or Noroviruses) and Sapporo viruses, commonly cause epidemic and endemic viral gastroenteritis of short duration in healthy individuals. However, the impact of human calicivirus in immunosuppressed populations has not been established. The authors report five pediatric patients who developed human calicivirus enteritis after intestinal transplantation. methods: Infection was documented with repetitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing with nucleotide sequencing of tissue and lumen fluid specimens. RESULTS: A single strain, type Miami Beach, affected all patients in the hospital with an apparent index case. A potential mode of transmission was not defined. Severe osmotic or secretory diarrhea necessitated intravenous fluid therapy for 40 days or more in three of the five infants. Concurrent or recent subclinical allograft infection with adenovirus in two patients was associated with more severe symptoms. Virus excretion exceeded 80 days in two patients. Differentiation of human calicivirus enteritis from allograft rejection was difficult, as both disorders were associated with increased enterocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Intensification of immunosuppressive therapy because of suspected rejection appeared to prolong symptoms. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that human calicivirus can be a significant pathogen in intestinal transplant recipients and potentially in other immunocompromised patients. ( info)

5/8. Genetic analysis of noroviruses associated with fatalities in healthcare facilities.

    norovirus outbreaks occurred in 236 healthcare facilities for the elderly in japan during the winter of 2004-2005. Three norovirus strains associated with three fatal clinical courses were isolated from geographically separate facilities and genetically analyzed along with three strains from non-fatal cases in the same season. All six isolates were classified as the GII-4 genotype. No new variant strains like those observed in europe in 2002 and 2004 were found in fatal cases, and the three outbreaks were deemed to have been caused by genetically close conventional norovirus GII-4 strains. ( info)

6/8. norovirus-associated encephalopathy.

    norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis. We describe the case of a 23-month-old girl with encephalopathy possibly associated with norovirus infection. The viral genome was detected in stool, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of encephalopathy potentially caused by norovirus as indicated by the presence of the virus genome in CSF. ( info)

7/8. Mixed genogroup SRSV infections among a party of canoeists exposed to contaminated recreational water.

    Samples of faeces collected from a party of canoeists involved in a gastroenteritis outbreak were examined by electron microscopy and RT-PCR for evidence of infection with SRSVs. A broadly reactive primer pair was used to detect SRSVs followed by application of genogroup-specific primers to SRSV-positive specimens. Exposure data were collected by means of a questionnaire. SRSVs were detected in 1/4 specimens examined by EM and 3/4 by RT-PCR. Genogrouping, and sequencing of PCR products revealed two distinct strains: a genogroup I strain, related to the Desert Shield virus, and a genogroup II strain, related to the Lordsdale virus to be associated with the outbreak. Exposure data indicated that capsising and eating food before getting changed were associated with an increased risk of gastroenteritis and was consistent with infection following the consumption of contaminated water. This study confirms the greater sensitivity of RT-PCR for the diagnosis of SRSV infections and its utility, when incorporating genogroup-specific primers, in establishing more complex epidemiological data. ( info)

8/8. in vitro isolation and characterization of a calicivirus causing a vesicular disease of the hands and feet.

    We report that a calicivirus of oceanic origin, San Miguel sea lion virus serotype 5 (SMSV-5), is a human pathogen. This biotype was isolated originally from blisters on the flippers of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and replicates readily in primate and human cell lines. It infects a phylogenetically diverse array of hosts (poikilotherms to primates) and induces type-specific neutralizing antibodies in exposed humans. Group antibody against a pooled antigen of SMSV-5 and two other serotypes was also observed in 18% of 300 blood donors from a population in the northwestern united states. The human calicivirus isolate designated SMSV-5 Homosapien-1 (SMSV-5 Hom-1) was recovered from a laboratory worker with systemic illness, including vesicular lesions on all four extremities. We believe this newly described human disease represents a paradigmatic shift in calicivirus disease recognition. ( info)

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